Robert H Helfert

Learn More
Immunoperoxidase immunocytochemistry was employed to examine the distribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-and glycine (GLY)-immunoreactive cells, fibers, and terminals in the guinea pig superior olivary complex. The nuclei studied were the lateral superior olive (LSO), medial superior olive (MSO), superior paraolivary nucleus (SPN), and the medial,(More)
Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve exerts an antiepileptic effect on human partial-onset epilepsy, but little is known about the brain structures that mediate this phenomenon. Fos is a nuclear protein that is expressed under conditions of high neuronal activity. We utilized fos immunolabeling techniques on Sprague-Dawley rat brains to identify(More)
This study provides a detailed analysis of the appearances and distributions of neurons projecting from one cochlear nucleus to the other. Injections of wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase were made into ventral or dorsal cochlear nucleus of the guinea pig. Retrogradely labeled cells in the opposite cochlear nucleus were examined and(More)
Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) is a complex state that reflects pathologic changes along the entire auditory neuraxis. Loss of speech understanding, decreased ability to localize sounds, and a decreased ability to detect and extract signals in noise are characteristic problems encountered by the elderly. Central (neural) presbycusis frequently(More)
The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) is a major processing center for the ascending auditory pathways. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and excitant amino acids (EAAs) are essential for coding many auditory tasks in the IC. Recently, a number of neurochemical and immunocytochemical studies have suggested an age-related decline in GABAergic(More)
The goal of this study was to correlate synaptic ultrastructure with transmitter specificity and function in the lateral superior olive (LSO), a nucleus that is thought to play a major role in sound localization. This was accomplished by means of postembedding immunogold immunocytochemistry. Four classes of synaptic terminals were identified in the LSO.(More)
Five morphologically distinct classes of neurons can be identified within the neuropil of the gerbil lateral superior olivary nucleus (LSO) by using a variety of histological techniques and electron microscopy. The physical features of these five classes resemble those found in the cat LSO and are identified, by using criteria and nomenclature established(More)
We compared the distribution of GABAA and GABAB binding sites in the cochlear nucleus using quantitative receptor autoradiography with [3H]GABA. To visualize GABAA binding sites, GABAB binding sites were blocked with +/- baclofen. To visualize GABAB binding sites, isoguvacine was used to block GABAA binding sites. GABAA binding sites predominated over(More)
This study characterizes morphologically the neurons residing within the matrix of the cat lateral superior olive (LSO), excluding the hili and myelinated axon envelope. Several light microscopic techniques including Golgi impregnations, Nissl stains, and acetylcholinesterase histochemistry were used, as well as electron microscopy. Five distinct classes of(More)
Previous studies have shown that levels of binding for the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in the cochlear nucleus (CN) of Fischer (F344) rats decrease with age. Given the major role glycine plays in normal CN function, changes in glycine-receptor activity may contribute to central presbycusis. To further evaluate the impact of age on glycine(More)