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DNA cytosine methylation is a central epigenetic modification that has essential roles in cellular processes including genome regulation, development and disease. Here we present the first genome-wide, single-base-resolution maps of methylated cytosines in a mammalian genome, from both human embryonic stem cells and fetal fibroblasts, along with comparative(More)
Regulation of gene expression by DNA methylation is crucial for defining cellular identities and coordinating organism-wide developmental programs in many organisms. In plants, modulation of DNA methylation in response to environmental conditions represents a potentially robust mechanism to regulate gene expression networks; however, examples of dynamic DNA(More)
Organisms are constantly challenged by stresses and privations and require adaptive responses for their survival. The forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor DAF-16 (hereafter referred to as DAF-16/FOXO) is a central nexus in these responses, but despite its importance little is known about how it regulates its target genes. Proteomic identification of(More)
Bacterial phytopathogens employ a type III secretion system to deliver effector proteins into the plant cell to suppress defense pathways; however, the molecular mechanisms and subcellular localization strategies that drive effector function largely remain a mystery. Here, we demonstrate that the plant plasma membrane is the primary site for subcellular(More)
Small RNAs--including piRNAs, miRNAs, and endogenous siRNAs--bind Argonaute proteins to form RNA silencing complexes that target coding genes, transposons, and aberrant RNAs. To assess the requirements for endogenous siRNA formation and activity in Caenorhabditis elegans, we developed a GFP-based sensor for the endogenous siRNA 22G siR-1, one of a set of(More)
Lafora disease (LD) is a progressive myoclonic epilepsy resulting in severe neurodegeneration followed by death. A hallmark of LD is the accumulation of insoluble polyglucosans called Lafora bodies (LBs). LD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the phosphatase laforin, which reportedly exists solely in vertebrates. We utilized a bioinformatics screen(More)
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 can lead to neurological complications that range from mild cognitive and motor impairment to HIV-associated dementia (HAD). The mechanism of brain injury and dementia remains poorly understood. Interestingly, post mortem brain specimen from HAD patients and transgenic mice expressing the viral envelope(More)
Inappropriate activation of innate immune responses in intestinal epithelial cells underlies the pathophysiology of inflammatory disorders of the intestine. Here we examine the physiological effects of immune hyperactivation in the intestine of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We previously identified an immunostimulatory xenobiotic that protects C.(More)
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