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The mechanisms underlying experience-dependent plasticity and refinement of central circuits are not yet fully understood. A non-Hebbian form of synaptic plasticity, which scales synaptic strengths up or down to stabilize firing rates, has recently been discovered in cultured neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate the existence of a similar mechanism in the(More)
Neuronal excitability has a large impact on network behavior, and plasticity in intrinsic excitability could serve as an important information storage mechanism. Here we ask whether postsynaptic excitability of layer V pyramidal neurons from primary visual cortex can be rapidly regulated by activity. Whole cell current-clamp recordings were obtained from(More)
Regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) membrane trafficking is critical for synaptic plasticity, as well as for learning and memory. However, the mechanisms of AMPAR trafficking in vivo remain elusive. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in the mouse somatosensory barrel cortex, we found that acute whisker stimulation led to a significant increase in the(More)
It is widely believed that damaged axons in the adult mammalian brain have little capacity to regrow, thereby impeding functional recovery after injury. Studies using fixed tissue have suggested that serotonin neurons might be a notable exception, but remain inconclusive. We have employed in vivo two-photon microscopy to produce time-lapse images of(More)
The cerebral vasculature provides blood flow throughout the brain, and local changes in blood flow are regulated to match the metabolic demands of the active brain regions. This neurovascular coupling is mediated by real-time changes in vessel diameter and depends on the underlying vascular network structure. Neurovascular structure is configured during(More)
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