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An introduction to modern theories for the origin of structure in the Universe is given. After a brief review of the growth of cosmological perturbations in an expanding Universe and a summary of some important observational results, the lectures focus on the inflationary Universe scenario and on topological defect models of structure formation. A summary… (More)

The theory of cosmological perturbations is the main tool which connects theories of the early Universe (based on new fundamental physics such as string theory) with cosmological observations. In these lectures, I will provide an introduction to this theory, beginning with an overview of the Newtonian theory of fluctuations, moving on to the analysis of… (More)

These lecture notes 1 intend to form a short pedagogical introduction to inflationary cosmology, highlighting selected areas of recent progress such as reheating and the theory of cosmological perturbations. Problems of principle for inflationary cosmology are pointed out, and some new attempts at solving them are indicated, including a nonsingular Universe… (More)

In [1] it was shown how non-perturbative corrections to gravity can resolve the big bang singularity, leading to a bouncing universe. Depending on the scale of the non-perturbative corrections, the temperature at the bounce may be close to or higher than the Hagedorn temperature. If matter is made up of strings, then massive string states will be excited… (More)

An introduction to modern cosmology is given, focusing on theories for the origin of structure in the Universe. After a brief review of the theory of growth of cosmological perturbations and a summary of some important observational results, most of the article is devoted to discussions of the inflationary Universe scenario and of topological defect models… (More)

The hypothesis that the Universe underwent a period of exponential expansion at very early times has become the most popular theory of the early Universe. Not only does it solve some of the problems of standard big bang cosmology, but it also provides a causal theory for the origin of primordial density fluctuations which may explain the observed density… (More)

The theory of cosmological perturbations has become a cornerstone of modern quantitative cosmology since it is the framework which provides the link between the models of the very early Universe such as the inflationary Universe scenario (which yield causal mechanisms for the generation of fluctuations) and the wealth of recent high-precision data on the… (More)

- Ali Nayeri, Robert H Brandenberger, Cumrun Vafa
- Physical review letters
- 2006

We study the generation of cosmological perturbations during the Hagedorn phase of string gas cosmology. Using tools of string thermodynamics we provide indications that it may be possible to obtain a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological fluctuations on scales which are of cosmological interest today. In our cosmological scenario, the early… (More)

For suitable cosmological backgrounds, thermal fluctuations of a gas of strings can generate a scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological fluctuations without requiring a phase of inflationary expansion. We highlight the key points of this mechanism, and discuss cosmological backgrounds in which this scenario can be realized. The spectrum of cosmological… (More)

In the framework of inflation, scales which nowadays correspond to large scale structures were smaller than the Planck length at the beginning of inflation. Therefore , measurements of CMBR anisotropy or surveys of galaxies and of clusters of galaxies could help us to probe physics beyond the Planck scale. In these proceedings , we study how the… (More)