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OBJECTIVE This study examined the effectiveness of rear-end collision warnings presented in different sensory modalities as a function of warning timing in a driving simulator. BACKGROUND The proliferation of in-vehicle information and entertainment systems threatens driver attention and may increase the risk of rear-end collisions. Collision warning(More)
Techniques for dynamically adding new code to a running program already exist in various operating systems , programming languages and runtime environments. Most of these systems have not found their way into common use, however, since they require programmer retraining and invalidate previous software investments. In addition, many of the systems are too(More)
This paper presents an efficient scheme for eliminating conflicts between distributed read-only transactions and distributed update transactions, thereby reducing synchronization delays. The scheme makes use of a multiversion mechanism in order to guarantee that distributed read-only transactions see semantically consistent snap-shots of the database, that(More)
ii for Andy iii iv Abstract I tackle the problem of naming and sharing resources across administrative boundaries. Conventional systems manifest the hierarchy of typical administrative structure in the structure of their own mechanism. While natural for communication that follows hierarchical patterns , such systems interfere with naming and sharing that(More)