Robert Glenn Howard

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CD40L, a membrane protein of activated T cells, interacts with the B cell receptor CD40. This interaction has been implicated in the rescue of germinal center B cells from apoptosis and in the rescue of WEHI-231 B lymphoma cells from sIg-induced apoptosis. In this report, we have demonstrated that the signal mediated by CD40L acts upon bcl-x, a bcl-2(More)
Covalent attachment of activated products of the third component of complement to antigen enhances its immunogenicity, but the mechanism is not clear. This effect is mediated by specific receptors, mCR1 (CD35) and mCR2 (CD21), expressed primarily on B cells and follicular dendritic cells in mice. To dissect the role of mCR1 and mCR2 in the humoral response,(More)
Activated B cells express Fas (CD95) and are targets for apoptosis induced by CD4+ Th1 effector cells that kill in a Fas-dependent fashion. We report here that IL-4 reverses the susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis that characterizes CD40-stimulated primary B cells. IL-4-induced Fas resistance is not associated with an alteration in the elevated level(More)
Mice deficient in complement components C3 (C3 -/-) and C4 (C4 -/-) were found to have a profound defect in their Ab response to a T-dependent Ag (bacteriophage (phi X174). Characterization of the deficient mice demonstrated a diminished level of peanut agglutinin+ germinal centers and a failure in isotype switching despite normal B cell signaling in vitro.(More)
Cytokine and growth factor receptor engagement leads to the rapid phosphorylation and activation of latent, cytosolic signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins, which then translocate to the nucleus where they regulate transcriptional events from specific promoter sequences. STAT3 expression in particular has been associated with(More)
The English language medical literature was reviewed to determine the strength of the published evidence for the assertion that dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy (DMSA) is superior to ultrasound (US) in the detection of established renal scarring in children. The MEDLINE database was used to identify papers published between 1985 and 1997 that claimed to(More)
PURPOSE To assess the development of white matter and cerebral metabolite changes during and after treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-three children (10 boys, mean age of 6.3 years; 13 girls, mean age of 6.6 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were examined prospectively with magnetic resonance (MR)(More)
B-1 lymphocytes represent a distinct B cell subset with characteristic features that include self-renewing capacity and unusual mitogenic responses. B-1 cells differ from conventional B cells in terms of the consequences of phorbol ester treatment: B-1 cells rapidly enter S phase in response to phorbol ester alone, whereas B-2 cells require a calcium(More)
Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) and renal scarring are commonly found in children with urinary tract infection (UTI). The prevalence of VUR and scarring may vary between racial groups. There are no published data on the prevalence of VUR and scarring in Chinese children with UTI. A retrospective, single-institution study was made of Hong Kong Chinese children(More)