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Stable expression of Foxp3 in regulatory T cells (Tregs) depends on DNA demethylation at the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR), a conserved, CpG-rich region within the Foxp3 locus. The TSDR is selectively demethylated in ex vivo Tregs purified from secondary lymphoid organs, but it is unclear at which stage of Treg development demethylation takes(More)
Recent evidence suggests that regulatory pathways might control sustained high levels of FOXP3 in regulatory CD4(+)CD25(hi) T (T(reg)) cells. Based on transcriptional profiling of ex vivo activated T(reg) and helper CD4(+)CD25(-) T (T(h)) cells we have identified GARP (glycoprotein-A repetitions predominant), LGALS3 (lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 3)(More)
A multitude of different virulence factors as well as the ability to rapidly adapt to adverse environmental conditions are important features for the high pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both virulence and adaptive resistance are tightly controlled by a complex regulatory network and respond to external stimuli, such as host signals or antibiotic(More)
The administration of macrolides such as azithromycin for chronic pulmonary infection of cystic fibrosis patients has been reported to be of benefit. Although the mechanisms of action remain obscure, anti-inflammatory effects as well as interference of the macrolide with Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor production have been suggested to contribute to(More)
Filopodia are rod-shaped cell surface protrusions composed of a parallel bundle of actin filaments. Since filopodia frequently emanate from lamellipodia, it has been proposed that they form exclusively by the convergence and elongation of actin filaments generated in lamellipodia networks. However, filopodia form without Arp2/3-complex, which is essential(More)
During pregnancy, the maternal immune system is challenged by the presence of the fetus, which must be tolerated despite being semiallogeneic. Uterine mucosal (or decidual) macrophages (M), one of the major leukocyte populations at the fetal-maternal interface, have been implicated in fetal tolerance, but information regarding their regulation is scarce. In(More)
Lysosome-related organelles have versatile functions, including protein and lipid degradation, signal transduction and protein secretion. The molecular elucidation of rare congenital diseases affecting endosomal-lysosomal biogenesis has given insights into physiological functions of the innate and adaptive immune system. Here, we describe a previously(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The transcription factor nuclear factor-eythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2(-/-)) is essential for protecting cells against xenobiotic and oxidative stress. Increased oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases including ethanol-induced liver disease. Therefore, the role of Nrf2(-/-) in ethanol-induced liver(More)
Cell migration entails protrusion of lamellipodia, densely packed networks of actin filaments at the cell front. Filaments are generated by nucleation, likely mediated by Arp2/3 complex and its activator Scar/WAVE. It is unclear whether formins contribute to lamellipodial actin filament nucleation or serve as elongators of filaments nucleated by Arp2/3(More)
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne viral disease repeatedly reported in many African countries and, more recently, in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. RVF virus (RVFV) primarily infects domesticated ruminants, resulting in miscarriage in pregnant females and death for newborns and young animals. It also has the ability to infect humans, causing a feverish(More)