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In the rabbit retina, parvalbumin has been localized selectively to AII amacrine cells, while 28 kDa calbindin could be detected in horizontal cells, in one type of depolarizing cone bipolar cell and a population of wide-field amacrine cells. The distribution of the third neuronal calcium binding protein, calretinin, however, has not been studied to date in(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic and neuroprotective peptide that has been shown to exert protective effects against different neuronal injuries, such as traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, models of neurodegenerative diseases, and cerebral ischemia. PACAP and its receptors are present in the retina. In this(More)
We investigated the cellular localization in the salamander retina of one of the somatostatin [or somatotropin release-inhibiting factor (SRIF)] receptors, sst(2A), and studied the modulatory action of SRIF on voltage-gated K(+) and Ca(2+) currents in rod and cone photoreceptors. SRIF immunostaining was observed in widely spaced amacrine cells, whose(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with highly potent neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. PACAP and its receptors occur in the retina and PACAP has been applied in animal models of metabolic retinal disorders to reduce structural and functional damage. Furthermore, PACAP has been implicated as a potential(More)
We studied the responses of rod photoreceptors that were elicited with light flashes or sinusoidally modulated light by using intracellular recording. Dark-adapted Xenopus rod photoreceptors responded to sinusoidally modulated green lights at temporal frequencies between 1 Hz and 4 Hz. In normal Ringer's solution, 57% of the rods tested could follow red(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic and neuroprotective peptide that has been shown to exert protective effects in different neuronal injuries, such as traumatic brain injury, models of neurodegenerative diseases and cerebral ischemia. We have provided evidence that PACAP is neuroprotective in several models of(More)
PURPOSE The ubiquitous pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) has a disparate array of functions in development (e.g., proliferation and apoptosis). Among three types of PACAP receptor (VPAC1, VPAC2, and PAC1), PAC1 is subject to alternative splicing that generates isoforms. Although the literature documenting the presence of PACAP receptors(More)
Diazoxide (DIAZ) has been shown to be neuroprotective in animal models of different brain pathologies. However, the direct protective effect of DIAZ in different in vivo models of retinal degeneration has not yet been shown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective role of this compound in two rodent model systems:(More)
We studied spiking neurons isolated from turtle retina by the whole cell version of the patch clamp. The studied cells had perikaryal diameters > 15 microns and fired multiple spikes in response to depolarizing current steps, indicating they were ganglion cells. In symmetrical [Cl-], currents elicited by puffs of 100 microM gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(More)
Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) immunocytochemistry was carried out in retinae of goldfish, axolotl, clawed frog, cane toad, lizard, chick, guinea-pig, rabbit, rat, cat and human. With the exception of Anura, strong immunoreactivity was seen in the large ganglion, amacrine cells and horizontal cells of the retina in all of the other species. Photoreceptors(More)