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Recent evidence indicates that the nucleus basalis of Meynert, a distinct population of basal forebrain neurons, is a major source of cholinergic innervation of the cerebral cortex. Postmortem studies have previously demonstrated profound reduction in the presynaptic markers for cholinergic neurons in the cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease and(More)
Age-associated changes in cholinergic, monoaminergic and amino acid neurotransmitter systems were analyzed in 14 brain regions of 23 rhesus monkeys that ranged in age from 2 to 37 years. In the frontal pole, the levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, the density of [3H]ketanserin (serotonin type-2) binding sites and endogenous levels of(More)
Monkeys with bilateral ibotenic-acid lesions of the nucleus basalis of Meynert, an area rich in cholinergic neurons that innervate the cerebral cortex, were compared with unoperated control monkeys on a recognition memory task. Although animals with large lesions had substantial reductions of cortical choline acetyltransferase activity, none showed(More)
Doublecortin-immunoreactive (DCX+) cells were detected across the allo- and neo-cortical regions in the adult guinea pig cerebrum, localized to layer II specifically at its border with layer I. The density of labeled cells declined with age, whereas no apparent apoptotic activity was detectable over the cortex including layer II. DCX+ cells varied in somal(More)
DCX-immunoreactive (DCX+) cells occur in the piriform cortex in adult mice and rats, but also in the neocortex in adult guinea pigs and rabbits. Here we describe these cells in adult domestic cats and primates. In cats and rhesus monkeys, DCX+ cells existed across the allo- and neocortex, with an overall ventrodorsal high to low gradient at a given frontal(More)
Although several studies of Alzheimer's disease suggest that the frequency of neuritic plaques in the cerebral cortex is correlated with the severity of dementia and with reduction in presynaptic cholinergic markers in the cortex, the relationship between cholinergic cortical innervation and the pathogenesis of plaques is unknown. The hypothesis was tested(More)
In primates, the large neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca (dbB), and medial septum are part of a cholinergic system with direct projections to amygdala, hippocampus, and cortex. Recent evidence indicates that neurons of this system selectively degenerate in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and(More)
Aging is accompanied by a gradual decline in memory in both humans and nonhuman primates. To determine whether the impairment in nonhuman primates extends to recognition memory, which is a sensitive index of the integrity of the limbic system, we trained rhesus monkeys of four different age groups (3-6, 14-17, 20-24, and 25-29 years of age) on a delayed(More)
Hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy (HCSMA), a dominantly inherited disorder of motor neurons, has three phenotypes: accelerated, intermediate, and chronic. In the accelerated and intermediate phenotypes, axonal sizes in ventral roots were smaller than in controls. Reductions in axonal size occurred primarily in large axons, and the frequency of(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a lipid transporting protein, has been postulated to participate in nerve regeneration. To better clarify apoE function in the olfactory system, we evaluated the amount and distribution of apoE in the olfactory bulb following olfactory nerve lesion in mice. Olfactory nerve was lesioned in 2- to 4-month-old mice by intranasal(More)