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Photoreceptors connect to the on-beta ganglion cell through parallel circuits involving rod bipolar (RB) and cone bipolar (CB) neurons. We estimated for a small patch in the area centralis of one retina the 3-dimensional architecture of both circuits. This was accomplished by reconstructing neurons and synapses from electron micrographs of 189 serial(More)
The structure of the rod-cone network in the area centralis of cat retina was studied by reconstruction from serial electron micrographs. About 48 rods converge on each cone via gap junctions between the rod spherules and the basal processes of the cone pedicle. One rod diverges to 2.4 cones through these gap junctions, and each cone connects to 8 other(More)
The AII amacrine cell of mammalian retina collects signals from several hundred rods and is hypothesized to transmit quantal "single-photon" signals at scotopic (starlight) intensities. One problem for this theory is that the quantal signal from one rod when summed with noise from neighboring rods would be lost if some mechanism did not exist for removing(More)
At very low light levels the sensitivity of the visual system is determined by the efficiency with which single photons are captured, and the resulting signal transmitted from the rod photoreceptors through the retinal circuitry to the ganglion cells and on to the brain. Although the tiny electrical signals due to single photons have been observed in rod(More)
Retinal ganglion cells in the cat respond to single rhodopsin isomerizations with one to three spikes. This quantal signal is transmitted in the retina by the rod bipolar pathway: rod-->rod bipolar-->AII-->cone bipolar-->ganglion cell. The two-dimensional circuit underlying this pathway includes extensive convergence from rods to an AII amacrine cell,(More)
Information in a spike train is limited by variability in the spike timing. This variability is caused by noise from several sources including synapses and membrane channels; but how deleterious each noise source is and how they affect spike train coding is unknown. Combining physiology and a multicompartment model, we studied the effect of synaptic input(More)
The outer plexiform layer of the retina contains a neural circuit in which cone synaptic terminals are electrically coupled and release glutamate onto wide-field and narrow-field horizontal cells. These are also electrically coupled and feed back through a GABAergic synapse to cones. In cat this circuit's structure is known in some detail, and much of the(More)
In guinea pig retina, immunostaining reveals a dual gradient of opsins: cones expressing opsin sensitive to medium wavelengths (M) predominate in the upper retina, whereas cones expressing opsin sensitive to shorter wavelengths (S) predominate in the lower retina. Whether these gradients correspond to functional gradients in postreceptoral neurons is(More)
In the primate visual system, the ganglion cells of the magnocellular pathway underlie motion and flicker detection and are relatively transient, while the more sustained ganglion cells of the parvocellular pathway have comparatively lower temporal resolution, but encode higher spatial frequencies. Although it is presumed that functional differences in(More)