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Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine produced by macrophages and T lymphocytes that acts through two distinct receptors, TNFR1 (60 kD, CD120a) and TNFR2 (80 kD, CD120b), to affect cellular proliferation, differentiation, survival, and cell death. In addition to its proinflammatory actions in mucosal tissue, TNF is important for liver regeneration.(More)
Keratins 8 (K8) and 18 (K18) are major components of intermediate filaments (IFs) of simple epithelial cells and tumors derived from such cells. Structural cell changes during apoptosis are mediated by proteases of the caspase family. During apoptosis, K18 IFs reorganize into granular structures enriched for K18 phosphorylated on serine 53. K18, but not K8,(More)
The two major intermediate filament proteins in glandular epithelia are keratin polypeptides 8 and 18 (K8/18). To evaluate the function and potential disease association of K18, we examined the effects of mutating a highly conserved arginine (arg89) of K18. Expression of K18 arg89-->his/cys and its normal K8 partner in cultured cells resulted in punctate(More)
Amplification of the Neu (ErbB-2 or HER-2) receptor tyrosine kinase occurs in 20 to 30% of human mammary carcinomas, correlating with a poor clinical prognosis. We have previously demonstrated that four (Y1144 Y1201, Y1227 and Y1253) of the five known Neu autophosphorylation sites can independently mediate transforming signals. The transforming potential of(More)
To investigate the expression and biological roles of cytokeratin 19 (K19) in development and in adult tissues, we inactivated the mouse K19 gene (Krt1-19) by inserting a bacterial beta-galactosidase gene (lacZ) by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells, and established germ line mutant mice. Both heterozygous and homozygous mutant mice were(More)
F9 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, cultured in suspension in medium containing 5 X 10(-8) M retinoic acid, aggregate and differentiate into embryoid bodies with an outer layer of visceral endoderm cells that synthesize and secrete alphafetoprotein (AFP) (Hogan, B. L. M., A. Taylor, and E. Adamson, 1981, Nature (Lond.). 291:235-237). Here we analyze the(More)
The intermediate filament protein keratin 8 (K8) is critical for the development of most mouse embryos beyond midgestation. We find that 68% of K8-/- embryos, in a sensitive genetic background, are rescued from placental bleeding and subsequent death by cellular complementation with wild-type tetraploid extraembryonic cells. This indicates that the primary(More)
Apoptosis depends critically on regulated cytoskeletal reorganization events in a cell. We demonstrate that death effector domain containing DNA binding protein (DEDD), a highly conserved and ubiquitous death effector domain containing protein, exists predominantly as mono- or diubiquitinated, and that diubiquitinated DEDD interacts with both the K8/18(More)
We have tested the requirement of keratin intermediate filaments for the formation and function of a simple epithelium. We disrupted both alleles of the mouse keratin 8 (mK8) gene in embryonic stem cells, and subsequently analyzed the phenotype in developing embryoid bodies in suspension culture. After the inactivation of the mouse keratin 8 (mK8) gene by a(More)
The Ets2 transcription factor is regulated by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphorylation of a single threonine residue. We generated by gene targeting a single codon mutation in Ets2 substituting Ala for the critical Thr-72 phosphorylation site (Ets2A72), to investigate the importance of MAP kinase activation of Ets2 in embryo and tumor(More)