Robert G. Grossman

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BACKGROUND Repeated periods of stimulation of the spinal cord and training increased the ability to control movement in animal models of spinal cord injury. We hypothesised that tonic epidural spinal cord stimulation can modulate spinal circuitry in human beings into a physiological state that enables sensory input from standing and stepping movements to(More)
The Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test (GOAT) was developed to evaluate cognition serially during the subacute stage of recovery from closed head injury. This practical scale measures orientation to person, place, and time, and memory for events preceding and following the injury. The distribution of test scores in 50 patients who had recovered from a(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major public health problem globally. In the United States the incidence of closed head injuries admitted to hospitals is conservatively estimated to be 200 per 100,000 population, and the incidence of penetrating head injury is estimated to be 12 per 100,000, the highest of any developed country in the world. This(More)
The International Campaign for Cures of Spinal Cord Injury Paralysis (ICCP) supported an international panel tasked with reviewing the methodology for clinical trials in spinal cord injury (SCI), and making recommendations on the conduct of future trials. This is the first of four papers. Here, we examine the spontaneous rate of recovery after SCI and(More)
The hypothesis that cerebral arteriovenous difference of oxygen content (AVDO2) can be used to predict cerebral blood flow (CBF) was tested in patients who were comatose due to head injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or cerebrovascular disease. In 51 patients CBF was measured daily for 3 to 5 days, and in 49 patients CBF was measured every 8 hours for 5 to 10(More)
An international panel reviewed the methodology for clinical trials of spinal cord injury (SCI), and provided recommendations for the valid conduct of future trials. This is the second of four papers. It examines clinical trial end points that have been used previously, reviews alternative outcome tools and identifies unmet needs for demonstrating the(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two acute-care management strategies on the frequency of jugular venous desaturation and refractory intracranial hypertension and on long-term neurologic outcome in patients with severe head injury. DESIGN Randomized clinical trial. SETTING Level I trauma hospital. PATIENTS One hundred(More)
Malignant meningiomas constitute a rare subset of meningiomas and display a marked propensity for post-surgical recurrence. This retrospective study evaluates the various parameters which alter the recurrence rate. The records of all malignant meningioma patients treated from 1984 through 1992 were reviewed, and the time to recurrence or current patient(More)
Analysis of data obtained by continuous computerized monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) in 109 adult patients with severe head trauma was performed to examine the pattern of change in indices of the ICP waveform. Indices derived from direct measurement of the ICP wave and obtained from a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) were examined. Concurrent(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We present a retrospective review of our experience in the endovascular treatment of posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysms. We detail the anatomic location of these aneurysms, the technique of endovascular treatment, morphologic results, and clinical outcome. We also discuss the segmental anatomy of the PCA as it relates to the(More)