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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major public health problem globally. In the United States the incidence of closed head injuries admitted to hospitals is conservatively estimated to be 200 per 100,000 population, and the incidence of penetrating head injury is estimated to be 12 per 100,000, the highest of any developed country in the world. This(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the cognitive and psychiatric outcome 6 months after bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) using a disease control group. METHODS 23 patients who underwent DBS were compared with 28 medically treated patients with PD at baseline and at 6 months for(More)
BACKGROUND Repeated periods of stimulation of the spinal cord and training increased the ability to control movement in animal models of spinal cord injury. We hypothesised that tonic epidural spinal cord stimulation can modulate spinal circuitry in human beings into a physiological state that enables sensory input from standing and stepping movements to(More)
The Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test (GOAT) was developed to evaluate cognition serially during the subacute stage of recovery from closed head injury. This practical scale measures orientation to person, place, and time, and memory for events preceding and following the injury. The distribution of test scores in 50 patients who had recovered from a(More)
Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) systems allow users to control external mechanical systems using their thoughts. Commonly used in literature are invasive techniques to acquire brain signals and decode user's attempted motions to drive these systems (e.g. a robotic manipulator). In this work we use a lower-body exoskeleton and measure the users brain activity(More)
Progress continues in the development of reparative interventions to enhance recovery after experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). Here we discuss to what extent rodent models of SCI have limitations for ensuring the efficacy and safety of treatments for humans, and under what circumstances it would be advantageous or necessary to test treatments in(More)
The electrophysiological properties of the neural pathways between the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex were studied intraoperatively in 31 patients undergoing anterior temporal lobectomy for medically intractable complex partial seizures. The hippocampus, removed en bloc, was studied histologically and the pathology was correlated with the(More)
Long-term recovery from severe closed head injury was investigated in predominantly young adults whose Glasgow Coma score was 8 or less at the time of admission. Of the 27 patients studied (median follow-up interval of 1 year), 10 attained a good recovery, 12 were moderately disabled, and five were severely disabled. In contrast to previous studies(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine which mediates protein wasting in pathological states by promoting the catabolism of visceral tissues and skeletal muscle. The role that TNF plays in nitrogen wasting following head injury was studied by measuring TNF in the serum of 21 patients with severe head injury. Parallel measurements of TNF and urinary(More)
The hypothesis that cerebral arteriovenous difference of oxygen content (AVDO2) can be used to predict cerebral blood flow (CBF) was tested in patients who were comatose due to head injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or cerebrovascular disease. In 51 patients CBF was measured daily for 3 to 5 days, and in 49 patients CBF was measured every 8 hours for 5 to 10(More)