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The epicardium and dorsal mesocardium are known to be the source of structures that form the wall of the coronary vessels. Because mouse knockout studies have shown that proper epicardial formation is also essential for myocardial development, we have studied in detail the migration and differentiation of epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs) within the(More)
Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a gap junction (GJ) protein widely expressed in mammalian tissues that mediates cell-to-cell coupling. Intercellular channels comprising GJ aggregates form from docking of paired connexons, with one each contributed by apposing cells. Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) binds the carboxy terminus of Cx43, and we have previously shown that(More)
Regulation of gap junction (GJ) organization is critical for proper function of excitable tissues such as heart and brain, yet mechanisms that govern the dynamic patterning of GJs remain poorly defined. Here, we show that zonula occludens (ZO)-1 localizes preferentially to the periphery of connexin43 (Cx43) GJ plaques. Blockade of the PDS95/dlg/ZO-1(More)
Heterozygous mutations of the cardiac transcription factor Nkx2-5 cause atrioventricular conduction defects in humans by unknown mechanisms. We show in KO mice that the number of cells in the cardiac conduction system is directly related to Nkx2-5 gene dosage. Null mutant embryos appear to lack the primordium of the atrioventricular node. In Nkx2-5(More)
Electrical coupling between heart muscle cells is mediated by specialised regions of sarcolemmal interaction termed gap junctions. In previous work, we have demonstrated that connexin42, a recently identified gap-junctional protein, is present in the specialised conduction tissues of the avian heart. In the present study, the spatial distribution of the(More)
The preparation of optically clear, thick sections of fragile embryonic tissues greatly aids the power of confocal scanning laser microscopy in imaging three-dimensional structures. We report here conditions for embedding, sectioning, and staining embryos in polyacrylamide gels for a variety of confocal imaging techniques. Infiltration of tissues in(More)
The gap junction protein, connexin43 (Cx43), has critical roles in the inflammatory, edematous, and fibrotic processes following dermal injury and during wound healing, and is abnormally upregulated at the epidermal wound margins of venous leg ulcers (VLUs). Targeting Cx43 with ACT1, a peptide mimetic of the carboxyl-terminus of Cx43, accelerates fibroblast(More)
A number of different phenotypes emerge from the mesoderm-derived cardiomyogenic cells of the embryonic tubular heart, including those comprising the cardiac conduction system. The transcriptional regulation of this phenotypic divergence within the cardiomyogenic lineage remains poorly characterized. A relationship between expression of the transcription(More)
Transgenic mice were generated containing a cytomegaloviral promoter driven construct (CMV43) expressing the gap junction polylpeptide connexin 43. RNA and protein analysis confirmed that the transgene was being expressed. In situ hybridization analysis of embryo sections revealed that transgene expression was targeted to the dorsal neural tube and in(More)