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WNT-7a induces axonal spreading and branching in developing cerebellar granule neurons. This effect is mediated through the inhibition of GSK-3beta, a serine/threonine kinase and a component of the WNT pathway. Lithium, an inhibitor of GSK-3beta, mimics WNT-7a in granule cells. Here we examined further the effect of GSK-3beta inhibition on cytoskeletal(More)
We have recently shown that glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) phosphorylates the microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 1B in an in vitro kinase assay and in cultured cerebellar granule cells. Mapping studies identified a region of MAP1B high in serine-proline motifs that is phosphorylated by GSK3beta. Here we show that COS cells, transiently(More)
Valproate (VPA) and lithium have been used for many years in the treatment of manic depression. However, their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that lithium and VPA inhibit GSK-3beta, a serine/threonine kinase involved in the insulin and WNT signaling pathways. Inhibition of GSK-3beta by high concentrations of lithium(More)
The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a group of neurodegenerative diseases, clinically and genetically heterogeneous, characterized by loss of balance and motor coordination due to dysfunction of the cerebellum and its afferent and efferent connections. Despite a well-described clinical and pathological phenotype, the molecular and(More)
In pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells and sympathetic neurons, nerve growth factor (NGF) engagement with the tropomyosin-related tyrosine kinase (TrkA) receptor activates the serine/threonine kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta), enabling it to phosphorylate the microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B). GSK3beta phosphorylation of MAP1B acts as a(More)
Recent experiments show that the microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 1B is a major phosphorylation substrate for the serine/threonine kinase glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) in differentiating neurons. GSK-3beta phosphorylation of MAP1B appears to act as a molecular switch regulating the control that MAP1B exerts on microtubule dynamics in(More)
In recent studies we have demonstrated that glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) and its substrate microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) regulate the microtubule cytoskeleton during axon outgrowth. To further examine the role GSK3beta plays in axon outgrowth we investigated the expression of GSK3beta and its activity towards MAP1B during nerve(More)
Microtubules are important for the growth and maintenance of stable neuronal processes and their organisation is controlled partly by microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). MAP 1B is the first MAP to be expressed in neurons and plays an important role in neurite outgrowth. MAP 1B is phosphorylated at multiple sites and it is believed that the function of(More)
Ataxin 1 (Atxn1) is a protein of unknown function associated with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), a neurodegenerative disease of late onset with variable degrees of cerebellar ataxia, ophthalmoplegia and neuropathy. SCA1 is caused by the toxic effects triggered by an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) within Atxn1 resulting in neurodegeneration in the(More)
We have recently shown that nerve growth factor (NGF) induces the phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) by activating the serine/threonine kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) in a spatio-temporal pattern in PC12 cells that correlates tightly with neurite growth. PC12 cells express two types of membrane receptor for(More)