Robert G. Downing

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To assess the validity of the reference values for hematologic and immunologic indices currently used in Africa, we evaluated blood samples from 3,311 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative Ugandans aged 1 week to 92 years. Erythrocyte, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels and mean corpuscular volume all significantly increased with age (P < 0.001) and(More)
Over the past 30 years, Zaire and Sudan ebolaviruses have been responsible for large hemorrhagic fever (HF) outbreaks with case fatalities ranging from 53% to 90%, while a third species, Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus, caused a single non-fatal HF case. In November 2007, HF cases were reported in Bundibugyo District, Western Uganda. Laboratory investigation of(More)
Despite the importance of mental illness and the high prevalence of HIV in Africa, few studies have documented depressive symptoms among HIV-infected persons in Africa. We assessed factors associated with depression among HIV-infected adults undergoing anti-retroviral eligibility screening in Eastern Uganda. Depressive symptoms were measured using the(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between a positive serum cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) test at baseline and mortality during the first 12 weeks on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Cryptococcal meningitis is a leading cause of HIV-related mortality in Africa, but current guidelines do not advocate CRAG testing as a screening tool. METHODS Between May 2003(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about how to implement antiretroviral treatment programmes in resource-limited countries. We assessed the UNAIDS/Uganda Ministry of Health HIV Drug Access Initiative--one of the first pilot antiretroviral programmes in Africa--in which patients paid for their medications at negotiated reduced prices. METHODS We assessed(More)
A new disease has recently been recognised in rural Uganda. Because the major symptoms are weight loss and diarrhoea, it is known locally as slim disease. It is strongly associated with HTLV-III infection (63 out of 71 patients) and affects females nearly as frequently as males. The clinical features are similar to those of enteropathic acquired(More)
Marburg virus (family Filoviridae) causes sporadic outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Bats have been implicated as likely natural reservoir hosts based most recently on an investigation of cases among miners infected in 2007 at the Kitaka mine, Uganda, which contained a large population of Marburg virus-infected Rousettus(More)
The largest outbreak on record of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) occurred in Uganda from August 2000 to January 2001. The outbreak was centered in the Gulu district of northern Uganda, with secondary transmission to other districts. After the initial diagnosis of Sudan ebolavirus by the National Institute for Virology in Johannesburg, South Africa, a(More)
In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat(More)
BACKGROUND Prophylaxis with co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole) is recommended for people with HIV infection or AIDS but is rarely used in Africa. We assessed the effect of such prophylaxis on morbidity, mortality, CD4-cell count, and viral load among people with HIV infection living in rural Uganda, an area with high rates of bacterial(More)