Robert G. Crawford

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The relational model has received increasing attention during the past decade. Its advantages include simplicity, consistency , and a sound theoretical basis. In this article, the naturalness of viewing information retrieval relationally is demonstrated. The relational model is presented, and the relational organization of a bibliographical database is(More)
General Motors's (GM's) 1926 acquisition of Fisher Body has long served as a cornerstone of holdup arguments for vertical integration. This paper utilizes primary historical evidence to make three related claims. First, it shows that GM's initial investment in Fisher Body occurred primarily to gain access to the Fisher brothers' specialized human assets.(More)
The effect of prior heat shock on thermotolerance of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium in broth culture was determined. Bacteria were grown at the permissive temperature of 35 degrees C, sublethally heated at 35 (control), 42, 48, and 52 degrees C (nonpermissive control) for various times, and inactivated at either 57.8 or 52 degrees C. The(More)
The effect of prior heat shock (48 degrees C for 15 min) on the thermotolerance of Listeria monocytogenes at the minimal high-temperature, short-time (71.7 degrees C for 15 s) parameters required by the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance was examined. The mean D71.7 degrees C value for heat-shocked L. monocytogenes was 4.6 +/- 0.5 s (control D = 3.0 +/- 1.0 s); the(More)
Thermal resistance of intracellular and freely suspended Listeria monocytogenes that was associated with a milkborne outbreak of listeriosis was studied by using the sealed tube and slug flow heat exchanger methods. Test temperatures for the former method were 57.8, 62.8, 66.1, and 68.9 degrees C (136, 145, 151, and 156 degrees F, respectively); whereas(More)
The thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes associated with a milk-borne outbreak of listeriosis was determined in parallel experiments by using freely suspended bacteria and bacteria internalized by phagocytes. The latter inoculum was generated by an in vitro phagocytosis reaction with immune-antigen-elicited murine peritoneal phagocytes. The heat(More)
Twelve strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from four epidemiologically distinct groups were examined for their ability to hemagglutinate human, bovine, chicken, guinea pig, and rabbit erythrocytes and to adhere to human buccal mucosal epithelial cells in the presence and absence of mannose. Four of six Kanagawa-positive but none of six Kanagawa-negative(More)
A large literature asserts that standard essential patents (SEPs) allow their owners to " hold up " innovation by charging fees that exceed their incremental contribution to a final product. We evaluate two central, interrelated predictions of this SEP holdup hypothesis: (1) SEP-reliant industries should experience more stagnant quality-adjusted prices than(More)