Robert G. Crawford

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General Motors’s (GM’s) 1926 acquisition of Fisher Body has long served as a cornerstone of hold-up arguments for vertical integration. This paper utilizes primary historical evidence to make three related claims. First, it shows that GM’s initial investment in Fisher Body occurred primarily to gain access to the Fisher brothers’ specialized human assets.(More)
The effect of prior heat shock on thermotolerance of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium in broth culture was determined. Bacteria were grown at the permissive temperature of 35 degrees C, sublethally heated at 35 (control), 42, 48, and 52 degrees C (nonpermissive control) for various times, and inactivated at either 57.8 or 52 degrees C. The(More)
Thermal resistance of intracellular and freely suspended Listeria monocytogenes that was associated with a milkborne outbreak of listeriosis was studied by using the sealed tube and slug flow heat exchanger methods. Test temperatures for the former method were 57.8, 62.8, 66.1, and 68.9 degrees C (136, 145, 151, and 156 degrees F, respectively); whereas(More)
Specific markers (growth, melanogenesis) of B16 murine melanoma cells in culture were used as indicators of toxin production by Aeromonas hydrophila. Cytotonic enterotoxinlike activity (inhibited growth, raised tyrosinase activity, and melanin accumulation) occurred at cytotoxic end points of purified beta-hemolysin and several culture filtrates.(More)
The thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes associated with a milk-borne outbreak of listeriosis was determined in parallel experiments by using freely suspended bacteria and bacteria internalized by phagocytes. The latter inoculum was generated by an in vitro phagocytosis reaction with immune-antigen-elicited murine peritoneal phagocytes. The heat(More)
The thermal resistance characteristics of spores from strains of five different Bacillus species were determined in phosphate buffer and at relative humidities ranging from <0.001 to 100% in a closed-can system. Spores tested in the closed-can system showed a marked increase in heat resistance over those in phosphate buffer, with the greatest increases(More)
The heat resistance of Bacillus subtilis var. niger has been measured from 85 to 125 degrees C using moisture levels of percent relative humidity (%RH) less than or equal to 0.001 to 100 in a closed system. Five curves have been presented to characterize the thermal destruction, using thermal death times defined as F values at a given combination of three(More)