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We studied the effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on the pulmonary function (PF) of 80 healthy infants tested shortly after birth (mean, 4.2 +/- 1.9 wk). Mothers' prenatal smoking was measured by: (1) questionnaire reports at each prenatal visit of the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and (2) urine cotinine concentrations (corrected for(More)
To determine the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements of airway area by acoustic reflection (AAAR) we made repeated measurements of tracheal areas in human volunteers, glass airway models, and excised canine tracheae. In 10 adult males, the mean ratio of tracheal AAAR to tracheal areas determined roentgenographically was not significantly different(More)
The relationship between initial level of lung function and subsequent wheezing, lower respiratory illness (LRI) was studied in 97 infants in whom the first measurement of pulmonary function (PFT) was made before 6 months of age. Occurrence of LRI was evaluated by standardized questionnaires at each well-baby visit, biweekly telephone calls to mothers, and(More)
BACKGROUND There is a lack of information on normal inspiratory and expiratory CT lung density in infants. OBJECTIVE To describe normal regional CT lung density at end inspiratory and end expiratory lung volumes in children ages 0--5 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS Motionless HRCT images were obtained at 25 cm (inspiratory) and 0 cm (expiratory) water(More)
We studied the effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on passive expiratory mechanics in 53 healthy infants tested early in infancy (mean +/- SD, 5.1 +/- 1.5 weeks). Maternal smoking was measured by: 1) questionnaire reports of the number of cigarettes smoked per day; and 2) urine cotinine concentrations (corrected for creatinine) at each visit.(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is high among infants with chronic lung disease (CLD), and the associated pathogenic mechanisms are not clear. The relationship of symptoms to the extent or duration of acid reflux events (AREs) is not well known in preterm or term infants. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship(More)
Aspects of pulmonary mechanics and exercise tolerance were investigated in 8 young male patients with pectus deformities, 5 of whom presented with the chief complaint of exercise limitation. Results of pulmonary mechanics studies did not adequately explain patient symptoms. Lung volumes were only mildly reduced. There was no evidence of airway obstruction.(More)
We examined airway vs. lung parenchymal growth, as inferred from maximal expiratory flows (MEF) and lung volumes (V), respectively, to determine whether the interindividual variability of airway size (inferred from MEF) changes during lung growth and whether a young child with large (or small) airways for his parenchymal size (inferred from V) maintains(More)
BACKGROUND There is growing recognition and understanding of the entities that cause interstitial lung disease (ILD) in infants. These entities are distinct from those that cause ILD in older children and adults. METHODS A multidisciplinary panel was convened to develop evidence-based guidelines on the classification, diagnosis, and management of ILD in(More)
Early measurements of autopsied lungs from infants, children, and adults suggested that the ratio of peripheral to central airway resistance was higher in infants than older children and adults. Recent measurements of forced expiration suggest that infants have high flows relative to lung volume. We employed a computational model of forced expiratory flow(More)