Robert G. Castile

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We studied the effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on the pulmonary function (PF) of 80 healthy infants tested shortly after birth (mean, 4.2 +/- 1.9 wk). Mothers' prenatal smoking was measured by: (1) questionnaire reports at each prenatal visit of the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and (2) urine cotinine concentrations (corrected for(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). Longitudinal assessment of the phenotypic changes in P. aeruginosa isolated from young children with CF is lacking. This study investigated genotypic and phenotypic changes in P. aeruginosa from oropharynx (OP) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(More)
The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of oropharyngeal (OP) cultures relative to simultaneous bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cultures in very young children with CF, and to examine the effects of bacterial density, age, and study cohort on diagnostic accuracy. Respiratory culture data were analyzed from three independent,(More)
Normal lung development follows a series of orchestrated events. Premature birth interrupts normal in utero lung development, which results in significant alterations in lung function and physiology. Increasingly, there are reports documenting the broad range of complications experienced by infants aged 34 to 36 weeks' gestational age (GA). Our objective(More)
We conducted 151 tests of pulmonary function (PF) on 72 healthy infants younger than 2 yr of age using partial expiratory flow volume (PEFV) maneuvers and helium dilution determination of FRC. After tests were grouped into four strata based on postconception (PC) age, variability and sex differences in level of PF were examined. No significant sex(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether the airway structure of infants and young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) differs from that of normal children by using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging. Study design Full-inflation, controlled ventilation HRCT images of the lungs were obtained at four anatomic levels in 34 infants with CF (age, 2.4+/-1.4(More)
The relationship between initial level of lung function and subsequent wheezing, lower respiratory illness (LRI) was studied in 97 infants in whom the first measurement of pulmonary function (PFT) was made before 6 months of age. Occurrence of LRI was evaluated by standardized questionnaires at each well-baby visit, biweekly telephone calls to mothers, and(More)
In six excised canine lungs, regional alveolar pressures (PA) were measured during small-amplitude high-frequency oscillations applied at the airway opening. Both the regional distribution of PA's and their relationship to pressure excursions at the airway opening (Pao) were assessed in terms of amplitude and phase. PA was sampled in several capsules glued(More)
Forced expiratory flows (FEF) can be measured in infants from lung volumes initiated near total lung capacity. In order to establish reference values and to evaluate lung growth, we obtained measurements in 155 healthy subjects between 3 and 149 wk of age. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was highly correlated with body length; however, after accounting for(More)
Two different methods for estimating trapped gas volume have been described in the literature. The purpose of this study was to use both of these methods to estimate and compare trapped gas volumes in normal infants and infants with cystic fibrosis (CF). Thirty normal infants and 29 infants with CF, ages 1 month to 3 years, were studied. Pulmonary function(More)