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Any opinions expressed are those of the authors. IRP publications (discussion papers, special reports, and the newsletter Focus) are now available on the Internet. Abstract Dramatic reductions in welfare caseloads since passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 have not allayed policy concerns about the(More)
When individuals fall on hard times, can they rely on their family for financial support? In view of proposed reductions in public assistance programs, it is important to understand the mechanisms through which families provide support for their members. In this article we provide evidence that intrafamily transfers are compensatory, directed(More)
Using national data from the U.S., we find that poor health at birth and limited parental resources (including low income, lack of health insurance, and unwanted pregnancy) interfere with cognitive development and health capital in childhood, reduce educational attainment, and lead to worse labor market and health outcomes in adulthood. These effects are(More)
A central theme of welfare reform is that recipients are required to engage in work activities. In many states, these work requirements apply to mothers whose children are a few months old, which may increase the costs and decrease the prevalence of breast-feeding. Given the substantial benefits of breast-feeding, any reduction represents an important(More)
OBJECTIVES Elderly widows are three times as likely to live in poverty as older married people. This study investigates the gap in poverty, income, and wealth between these groups. Focus is placed on the role played by out-of-pocket medical expenditures spent on dying spouses. METHODS A national panel survey of people age 70 and older in 1993 was used.(More)
Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the National Poverty Center or any sponsoring agency. Abstract Beginning in 1999, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) added new questions about several categories of consumption expenditure. The PSID(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to provide new evidence on disability trends among elderly persons from 1982 to 1996. METHODS The sample includes 124,949 participants aged 70 and older in the 1982-1996 National Health Interview Surveys. Logistic analysis was used to estimate the trend in disability prevalence after controlling for various(More)
OBJECTIVES We examined the relation between low birth weight and childhood family and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and disease onset in adulthood. METHODS Using US nationally representative longitudinal data, we estimated hazard models of the onset of asthma, hypertension, diabetes, and stroke, heart attack, or heart disease. The sample(More)