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Masking is said to occur when a mask stimulus interferes with the visibility of a target (test) stimulus. One widely held view of this process supposes interactions between mask and test mechanisms (cross-channel masking), and explicit models (e.g., J. M. Foley, 1994) have proposed that the interactions are inhibitory. Unlike a within-channel model, where(More)
Previous identification of early visual cortical areas in humans with phase-encoded retinotopic mapping techniques have relied on an accurate cortical surface reconstruction. Here a 3D phase-encoded retinotopic mapping technique that does not require a reconstruction of the cortical surface is demonstrated. The visual field sign identification is completely(More)
Distinct mechanisms underlying the visual perception of luminance- (first-order) and contrast-defined (second-order) motion have been proposed from electrophysiological, human psychophysical and neurological studies; however a cortical specialization for these mechanisms has proven elusive. Here human brain imaging combined with psychophysical methods was(More)
We investigated global motion processing in a group of adult amblyopes using a method that allows us to factor out any influence of the known contrast sensitivity deficit. We show that there are independent global motion processing deficits in human amblyopia that are unrelated to the contrast sensitivity deficit, and that are more extensive for(More)
Over the last decade or so a great deal of psychophysical research has attempted to delineate the principles by which local orientations and motions are combined across space to facilitate the detection of simple spatial contours. This has led to the development of "association field" models of contour detection which suggest that the strength of linking(More)
In order to understand the nature of the mechanisms responsible for global shape detection, we measured coherence thresholds in a 2IFC task where subjects judged which of two arrays of Gabors contained global circular structure. The stimulus was composed of an array of oriented Gabor patches positioned on a polar grid. Thresholds were obtained for different(More)
We studied the perceptual integration of contours consisting of Gabor elements positioned along a smooth path, embedded among distractor elements. Contour elements either formed tangents to the path ("snakes") or were perpendicular to it ("ladders"). Perfectly straight snakes and ladders were easily detected in the fovea but, at an eccentricity of 6 degrees(More)
Our aim was to make a quantitative comparison of the response of the different visual cortical areas to selective stimulation of the two different cone-opponent pathways [long- and medium-wavelength (L/M)- and short-wavelength (S)-cone-opponent] and the achromatic pathway under equivalent conditions. The appropriate stimulus-contrast metric for the(More)
Adults with amblyopia, a common visual cortex disorder caused primarily by binocular disruption during an early critical period, do not respond to conventional therapy involving occlusion of one eye. But it is now clear that the adult human visual cortex has a significant degree of plasticity, suggesting that something must be actively preventing the adult(More)
In this paper we propose a novel approach for characterizing effective connectivity in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Unlike most other methods, our approach is nonlinear and does not rely on a priori specification of a model that contains structural information of neuronal populations. Instead, it relies on a nonlinear autoregressive(More)