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Biological and environmental contrasts between aquatic and terrestrial systems have hindered analyses of community and ecosystem structure across Earth's diverse habitats. Ecological stoichiometry provides an integrative approach for such analyses, as all organisms are composed of the same major elements (C, N, P) whose balance affects production, nutrient(More)
Studies of dispersal polymorphism in insects have played a pivotal role in advancing our understanding of population dynamics, life history evolution, and the physiological basis of adaptation. Comparative data on wing-dimorphic insects provide the most definitive evidence to date that habitat persistence selects for reduced dispersal capability. The(More)
Disparities in nutrient content (nitrogen and phosphorus) between herbivores and their plant resources have lately proven to have major consequences for herbivore success, consumer-driven nutrient cycling, and the fate of primary production in ecosystems. Here we extend these findings by examining patterns of nutrient content between animals at higher(More)
This review reevaluates the importance of interspecific competition in the population biology of phytophagous insects and assesses factors that mediate competition. An examination of 193 pair-wise species interactions, repre­ senting all major feeding guilds, provided information on the occurrence, frequency, symmetry, consequences, and mechanisms of(More)
Omnivory is a frequent feeding strategy in terrestrial arthropods, occurring across a diversity of taxa occupying a wide array of habitats. Because omnivory has important consequences for broad areas of theoretical and applied ecology, it is essential to understand those factors that favor its occurrence. Here we address the limiting role of nitrogen in(More)
To determine the effects of dispersal ability and diet breadth on population-genetic structure, we reviewed the allozyme literature and estimated genetic isolation by distance (IBD) for 43 species/host races of phytophagous insects. Subsequently, we tested two opposing hypotheses regarding the influence of dispersal ability on IBD: that IBD slopes do not(More)
A recent surge in attention devoted to the ecology of soil biota has prompted interest in quantifying similarities and differences between interactions occurring in above- and belowground communities. Furthermore, linkages that interconnect the dynamics of these two spatially distinct ecosystems are increasingly documented. We use a similar approach in the(More)
Roots play a critical, but largely unappreciated, role in aboveground anti-herbivore plant defense (e.g. resistance and tolerance) and root-leaf connections may therefore result in unexpected coupling between above- and belowground consumers. Using the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) system we highlight two examples of this phenomenon. First, the secondary(More)
A series of laboratory experiments was conducted to determine the effect of interspecific differences on prey defensive behavior on the susceptibility of two aphid species (Acyrthosiphon pisum and A. kondoi) to a ground-foraging predator, Harpalus pennsylvanicus, and a foliar-foraging predator, Coccinella septempunctata. These organisms are representative(More)
The importance of interspecific competition is a highly controversial and unresolved issue for community ecology in general, and for phytophagous insects in particular. Recent advancements, however, in our understanding of indirect (plant- and enemy-mediated) interactions challenge the historical paradigms of competition. Thus, in the context of this(More)