Robert F. Berg

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We used a novel, overdamped oscillator aboard the Space Shuttle to measure the viscosity eta of xenon near its critical density rho(c) and temperature Tc. In microgravity, useful data were obtained within 0.1 mK of Tc, corresponding to a reduced temperature t=(T-Tc)/Tc=3 x 10(-7). Because they avoid the detrimental effects of gravity at temperatures two(More)
We describe two primary standards for gas flow in the range from 0.1 to 1000 μmol/s. (1 μmol/s ≅ 1.3 cm(3)/min at 0 °C and 1 atmosphere.) The first standard is a volumetric technique in which measurements of pressure, volume, temperature, and time are recorded while gas flows in or out of a stainless steel bellows at constant pressure. The second standard(More)
The static method of measuring equilibrium vapor pressure requires locating the sample at the coldest part of the apparatus to avoid errors due to evaporation and recondensation elsewhere. This paper describes a device that can hold the sample 1 K below the temperature of the surrounding air without a liquid bath. It comprises a pair of thermoelectric(More)
This article describes an apparatus and method for measuring vapor pressures in the range from 1 Pa to 10(5) Pa. Its three distinctive elements are : (1) the static pressure measurements were made with only a small temperature difference between the vapor and the condensed phase, (2) the sample was degassed in situ, and (3) the temperature range extended up(More)
We measured shear thinning, a viscosity decrease ordinarily associated with complex liquids, near the critical point of xenon. The data span a wide range of reduced shear rate: 10(-3)<gamma tau<700 , where gamma tau is the shear rate scaled by the relaxation time tau of critical fluctuations. The measurements had a temperature resolution of 0.01 mK and were(More)
We investigated several types of thin-film filters for high intensity work in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range. In our application, with a peak EUV intensity of 2.7 W cm(-2), Ni-mesh-backed Zr filters have a typical lifetime of 20 h, at which point they suffer from pinholes and a 50% loss of transmission. Initial trials with Si filters on Ni(More)