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There is still a low level of clinical awareness regarding Legionnaires' disease 25 years after it was first detected. The causative agents, legionellae, are freshwater bacteria with a fascinating ecology. These bacteria are intracellular pathogens of freshwater protozoa and utilize a similar mechanism to infect human phagocytic cells. There have been major(More)
The bioterrorism-associated human anthrax epidemic in the fall of 2001 highlighted the need for a sensitive, reproducible, and specific laboratory test for the confirmatory diagnosis of human anthrax. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed, optimized, and rapidly qualified an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G(More)
BACKGROUND Outbreaks of travel-related Legionnaires' disease present a public-health challenge since rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostic tests are not widely used and because detection of clusters of disease among travellers is difficult. We report an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease among cruise ship passengers that occurred in April, 1994, but that(More)
We examined the role of the flagella of Legionella pneumophila in the infection of amoebae and human monocyte-like cells. Insertional mutants were constructed with mini-Tn10. Ten mutants (F-) which did not react with polyclonal L. pneumophila antiflagellar antisera were identified. Ten randomly selected mutants (F+) that did react with the polyclonal(More)
BACKGROUND From June to November 2005, 18 cases of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease (LD) were reported in Rapid City South Dakota. We conducted epidemiologic and environmental investigations to identify the source of the outbreak. METHODS We conducted a case-control study that included the first 13 cases and 52 controls randomly selected from(More)
An outbreak of Pontiac fever occurred among 34 of 56 people attending conferences at a hotel in Santa Clara County, California, in 1988. Two groups had an acute febrile upper respiratory illness, with a mean attack rate of 82% and a mean incubation period of 56 hours. Symptoms resolved spontaneously within 5 days. Legionella anisa, which had not previously(More)
In response to the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the United States established national surveillance using a sensitive case definition incorporating clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory criteria. Of 1,460 unexplained respiratory illnesses reported by state and local health departments to the Centers for Disease Control and(More)
Theoretical studies have shown the potential scientific value of multi-spacecraft radio tomographic imaging of the magnetosphere. The <10 RE WIND perigee passes during August 2000 afforded a unique opportunity to test and verify the capabilities of radio tomography by measuring interspacecraft electromagnetic wave propagation parameters using the Radio(More)
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