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The radical species underlying the activity of the bioreductive anticancer prodrug, SN30000, have been identified by electron paramagnetic resonance and pulse radiolysis techniques. Spin-trapping experiments indicate both an aryl-type radical and an oxidising radical, trapped as a carbon-centred radical, are formed from the protonated radical anion of(More)
Targeting the anticancer compound tirapazamine (3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide; TPZ) to DNA by appended binding units has been found to greatly increase the free radical-induced production of both single and double strand breaks under hypoxia compared to TPZ itself. The (*)OH radical, produced upon the radiolysis of aqueous solutions, was used to(More)
PURPOSE The aim of the study was to obtain evidence to support the hypothesis that the radioprotection by DNA-binding bibenzimidazoles is due to reduction by the DNA-bound ligand of transient radiation-induced oxidizing species on DNA, by following oxidation of the ligand after pulse radiolysis. A second aim was to compare the activities of methylproamine(More)
Our studies show that the malignant melanoma cell in human beings is more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat than its normal counterpart, the melanocyte. Malignant melanoma of the extremities presents unique problems; at times, local control can be extremely difficult. The addition of heat to regional perfusion with melphalan has dramatically improved(More)
The catechins, (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) are believed to be active constituents of green tea accounting for the reported chemoprevention of certain cancers. The molecular mechanisms by which the measured low concentrations (ca. micromolar) of catechins in humans(More)
The one-electron oxidation of guanine in the GC base pair of DNA has been investigated using pulse radiolysis combined with DFT calculations. Reaction of benzotriazinyl radicals with DNA results in the formation of the neutral guanyl radical and redox equilibria. The one-electron reduction potential, E(7), of the neutral guanyl radical in the GC base pair(More)
The mechanism for the catalytic dismutation of superoxide by the Mn(II) pentaazamacrocyclic compound M40403 ([manganese(II) dichloro-(4 R,9 R,14 R,19 R)-3,10,13,20,26 pentaazatetracyclo [ (4,9).0 (14,9)] hexacosa-1(26),-22(23),24-triene], SODm1) and two 2,21-dimethyl analogues has been investigated using pulse radiolysis. The initial rate of(More)
When neutrophils ingest bacteria, they discharge superoxide and myeloperoxidase into phagosomes. Both are essential for killing of the phagocytosed micro-organisms. It is generally accepted that superoxide is a precursor of hydrogen peroxide which myeloperoxidase uses to oxidize chloride to hypochlorous acid. Previously, we demonstrated that superoxide(More)
The mechanism by which a benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide class of anticancer drugs produce oxidizing radicals following their one-electron reduction has been investigated using tirapazamine (3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide, 1) and its 6-methoxy (6), 7-dimethylamino (7), and 8-methyl (8) analogues. By measuring the changes in absorption with pH, we found(More)
The conditions necessary for the production of fumaric acid in 20-liter fermentors by fermentation of glucose with Rhizopus arrhizus strain NRRL 2582 were determined. Continuous neutralization of fumaric acid was necessary for optimal yields. Yields of the calcium salt were in excess of 65 g of fumaric acid from 100 g of sugar consumed during fermentation(More)