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BACKGROUND Experimental evidence indicates that the endogenous opioid system influences stress responses as well as reinforces effects of addictive drugs. Because stress is an important factor contributing to drug dependence and relapse, we have now studied ethanol preference in enkephalin- and beta-endorphin-deficient mice under baseline conditions and(More)
With the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) along the genome, genotyping of large samples of biallelic multilocus genetic phenotypes for (fine) mapping of disease genes or for population studies has become standard practice. A genetic trait, however, is mainly caused by an underlying defective haplotype, and populations are best(More)
Alcohol dependence is a typical example of a complex trait that is governed by several genes and for which the mode of inheritance is unknown. We analyzed the microsatellite markers and the Affymetrix single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for a subset of the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism family sample, 93 pedigrees of Caucasian ancestry(More)
MOTIVATION Sex-specific marker maps have become increasingly available. We have implemented the usage of sex-specific recombination frequencies in the GENEHUNTER-MODSCORE program that performs multipoint linkage analysis. Furthermore, we have devised a consistent method to choose the combinations of male and female genetic positions at which linkage scores(More)
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