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Lactoferrin is a member of the transferrin family of iron-binding proteins. Numerous functions have been reported and continue to be reported for the protein, some of which are related to its iron-binding properties. Its extensive antimicrobial activities were originally attributed to its ability to sequester essential iron, however, it is now established(More)
The exfoliative (epidermolytic) toxins of Staphylococcus aureus are the causative agents of the staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome (SSSS), a blistering skin disorder that predominantly affects children. Clinical features of SSSS vary along a spectrum, ranging from a few localized blisters to generalized exfoliation covering almost the entire body. The(More)
Hephaestin (Hp) plays an important role in intestinal iron absorption and is predicted to be a ferroxidase based on significant sequence identity to the serum multicopper ferroxidase ceruloplasmin. Here, we demonstrate that Hp has both amine oxidase and ferroxidase activity in cultured cells and primary intestinal enterocytes with the use of both gel and(More)
Despite its importance in iron-overload diseases, little is known about the composition of plasma non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI). Using 30-kDa ultrafiltration, plasma from thalassemic patients consisted of both filterable and non-filterable NTBI, the filterable fraction representing less than 10% NTBI. Low filterability could result from protein binding(More)
BACKGROUND It is over 60years since the discovery and isolation of the serum ferroxidase ceruloplasmin. In that time much basic information about the protein has been elucidated including its catalytic and kinetic properties as an enzyme, expression, sequence and structure. The importance of its biological role is indicated in genetic diseases such as(More)
Hephaestin was implicated in mammalian iron homeostasis following its identification as the defective gene in murine sex-linked anaemia. It is a member of the family of copper oxidases that includes mammalian ceruloplasmin, factors V and VIII, yeast fet3 and fet5 and bacterial ascorbate oxidase. Hephaestin is different from ceruloplasmin, a soluble(More)
Iron (Fe) is an essential, but potentially noxious, metal for almost all organisms. Its precise cellular regulation is necessary to ensure synthesis of numerous iron-containing proteins required for metabolic processes yet at the same time avoiding the build-up of potentially toxic levels of iron. In humans, iron-deficiency results in anemia, while excess(More)
We model an R&D race in which each firm decides in each period between two research projects, only one of which has positive success probability and it is not known which. There is symmetric information and hence scope for strategic search. If the prize is shared when discovery is simultaneous there is too much duplication of projects. If neither is(More)
The paper studies a general model of holdup in a setting encompassing the models of Segal (1999) and Che and Hausch (1999) among others. It is shown that if renegotiation is modeled as an infinite-horizon non-cooperative bargaining game then, with a simple initial contract, an efficient equilibrium will generally exist. The contract is robust in the sense(More)