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The exfoliative (epidermolytic) toxins of Staphylococcus aureus are the causative agents of the staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome (SSSS), a blistering skin disorder that predominantly affects children. Clinical features of SSSS vary along a spectrum, ranging from a few localized blisters to generalized exfoliation covering almost the entire body. The(More)
Lactoferrin is a member of the transferrin family of iron-binding proteins. Numerous functions have been reported and continue to be reported for the protein, some of which are related to its iron-binding properties. Its extensive antimicrobial activities were originally attributed to its ability to sequester essential iron, however, it is now established(More)
Hephaestin (Hp) plays an important role in intestinal iron absorption and is predicted to be a ferroxidase based on significant sequence identity to the serum multicopper ferroxidase ceruloplasmin. Here, we demonstrate that Hp has both amine oxidase and ferroxidase activity in cultured cells and primary intestinal enterocytes with the use of both gel and(More)
We model an R&D race in which each firm decides in each period between two research projects, only one of which has positive success probability and it is not known which. There is symmetric information and hence scope for strategic search. If the prize is shared when discovery is simultaneous there is too much duplication of projects. If neither is(More)
In a previous paper [Lindley et al. (1993), Acta Cryst. D49, 292-304], the X-ray structure analysis of the 18 kDa fragment of duck ovotransferrin, corresponding to the NII domain of the intact protein, was reported at a resolution of 2.3 A. In this structure, the Fe(III) cation binds to two tyrosine residues and the synergistic carbonate anion in an(More)
Despite its importance in iron-overload diseases, little is known about the composition of plasma non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI). Using 30-kDa ultrafiltration, plasma from thalassemic patients consisted of both filterable and non-filterable NTBI, the filterable fraction representing less than 10% NTBI. Low filterability could result from protein binding(More)
BACKGROUND It is over 60years since the discovery and isolation of the serum ferroxidase ceruloplasmin. In that time much basic information about the protein has been elucidated including its catalytic and kinetic properties as an enzyme, expression, sequence and structure. The importance of its biological role is indicated in genetic diseases such as(More)
We previously detected a membrane-bound, copper-containing oxidase that may be involved in iron efflux in BeWo cells, a human placental cell line. We have now identified a gene encoding a predicted multicopper ferroxidase (MCF) with a putative C-terminal membrane-spanning sequence and high sequence identity to hephaestin (Heph) and ceruloplasmin (Cp), the(More)
Screening of human serum samples by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of 6 M-urea revealed an individual who is heterozygous for a variant transferrin. The variant transferrin is able to bind two atoms of iron, but the iron in the C-terminal binding site is bound abnormally, as judged by its spectral properties, and is dissociated from the(More)
Hephaestin was implicated in mammalian iron homeostasis following its identification as the defective gene in murine sex-linked anaemia. It is a member of the family of copper oxidases that includes mammalian ceruloplasmin, factors V and VIII, yeast fet3 and fet5 and bacterial ascorbate oxidase. Hephaestin is different from ceruloplasmin, a soluble(More)