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We have studied the admittance of the membrane of squid giant axon under voltage clamp in the absence of ionic conductances in the range of 0-12 kHz for membrane potentials (V) between --130 and 70 mV. The admittance was measured at various holding potentials (HP) or 155 ms after pulsing from a given holding potential. Standard P/4 procedure was used to(More)
Gating currents were measured by subtracting the linear component of the capacitative current recorded at very positive or very negative potentials. When the membrane is depolarized for a few minutes, repolarized to the usual holding potential (HP) of --70 mV for 1 ms, and then pulsed to 0 mV, the charge transferred in 2--4 ms is approximately 50% of that(More)
Treatment of giant axons from the squid, Loligo pealei, with pronase removes Na channel inactivation. It was found that the peak Na current is increased, but the activation kinetics are not significantly altered, by pronase. Measurements of the fraction of open channels as a function of voltage (F-V) showed an e-folding at 7 mV and a center point near -15(More)
Voltage-clamped squid giant axons, perfused internally and externally with solutions containing 10(-5) M dipicrylamine (DpA-), show very large polarization currents (greater than or equal to 1 mA/cm2) in response to voltage steps. The induced polarization currents are shown in the frequency domain as a very large voltage-and frequency-dependent capacitance(More)
There is strong evidence for genetic influences on personality traits. Interest in one such gene, the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) grew after an exon III polymorphism was associated with Novelty Seeking and related measures of Extraversion. However, the findings were not confirmed in later studies. Recently, a -521C/T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)(More)
AIMS This study was undertaken to determine whether simultaneous administration of both alcohol and nicotine systemically would result in an additive dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NACC). Moreover, to also investigate whether nicotinic receptors may be mediating these effects of alcohol and nicotine, the effects of mecamylamine, a nicotinic(More)
1. Giant axons from the squids Dosidicus gigas, Loligo forbesi and Loligo vulgaris were internally perfused with 550 or 275 mM KF plus sucrose and bathed in artificial sea water containing 45Ca, 28Mg or mixtures of 45Ca-28Mg or 45Ca-22Na. Resting influxes and extra influxes during voltage-clamp pulses were measured by collecting and counting the internal(More)
The AC impedance of the isolated perineurium of the frog sciatic nerve was examined at frequencies from 2 Hz to 100 kHz. A Nyquist plot of the imaginary and real components of the impedance demonstrated more than 1 capacitative element, and a DC resistance of 478 +/- 34 (SEM, n = 27) omega cm2. Transperineurial potential in the absence of externally applied(More)
When tetrodotoxin is applied to or washed away from the squid giant axon, the rates at which the sodium conductatnce is blocked and unblocked are an order of magnitude smaller than those reported for the isolated node of Ranvier. This slowing is to be expected if in squid the tetrodotoxin binding sites act as a saturable sink in series with the barrier to(More)