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BACKGROUND Alcohol dependence is a complex disease, and although linkage and candidate gene studies have identified several genes associated with the risk for alcoholism, these explain only a portion of the risk. METHODS We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on a case-control sample drawn from the families in the Collaborative Study on the(More)
There is strong evidence for genetic influences on personality traits. Interest in one such gene, the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) grew after an exon III polymorphism was associated with Novelty Seeking and related measures of Extraversion. However, the findings were not confirmed in later studies. Recently, a -521C/T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)(More)
AIMS This study was undertaken to determine whether simultaneous administration of both alcohol and nicotine systemically would result in an additive dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NACC). Moreover, to also investigate whether nicotinic receptors may be mediating these effects of alcohol and nicotine, the effects of mecamylamine, a nicotinic(More)
The additive genetic heritability of both monopolar and bipolar EEG spectral power in a sample of 305 non-twin sibships comprising 690 individuals (age range 7-65) was estimated in order to investigate their regional variation. The heritabilities of the bipolar EEG spectral power ranged from 0.10 to 0.63 in 38 electrode-pairs, and those of monopolar power(More)
We demonstrate here that covalent dimerization of 5-HT 1 ligands is an effective design strategy to modulate affinity and selectivity of 5-HT 1 ligands. This approach was applied to LY-334370, a selective agonist of 5-HT 1F receptor, to generate structurally well-defined divalent molecules. Radioligand binding assays to three cloned 5-HT 1 receptor subtypes(More)
It is well established that combination of heavy drinking and smoking has severe health consequences. However, at relatively low concentrations, both alcohol and nicotine may have beneficial effects including neuroprotection. Thus, protective effects of low alcohol concentration against beta-amyloid-induced toxicity in organotypic hippocampal slices and(More)
BACKGROUND Despite synergistic increases in risks of various cancers, the incidence of concomitant smoking and drinking remains high. An additive or synergistic analgesic effect of combined alcohol and nicotine may contribute to their coabuse. Recently, we provided evidence that doses of alcohol and nicotine that are ineffective in inducing an(More)
Alcoholism is associated with a higher incidence of smoking. In addition to the stimulatory effects of both ethanol and nicotine on the mesolimbic reward pathway, nicotine's ability to counteract some of the adverse effects of ethanol (e.g. ataxia) may be a powerful incentive for alcohol consumers to increase their tobacco (nicotine) intake. The cerebellum(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic substance abuse has been associated with decrements in the processing and expression of language. The present study utilized the N400 event-related electroencephalographic potential to index semantic processing in 133 adults with (n=49) or without (n=84) a history of alcohol and/or cocaine dependence. The contributions of age, gender, and(More)
The additive genetic heritability of bipolar EEG coherence in a sample of 305 non-twin sibships comprising 690 individuals (age range 7-65) was estimated. Heritabilities were examined in 6 frequency bands for each of 15 coherence pairs, both interhemispheric and intrahemispheric. The heritabilities of the bipolar EEG coherence ranged from 0.22 to 0.63 in 79(More)