Robert E. Scholten

Learn More
The ability to fabricate nanometer-sized structures that are stable in air has the potential to contribute significantly to the advancement of new nanotechnologies and our understanding of nanoscale systems. Laser light can be used to control the motion of atoms on a nanoscopic scale. Chromium atoms were focused by a standing-wave laser field as they(More)
We demonstrate production of continuous coherent blue laser light by using a five-level system in rubidium vapor. Two low-power lasers, at 780 and 776 nm, induce strong atomic coherence in the 5S-5P-5D states. The atoms decay to the 6P excited state, from which stimulated emission produces a coherent blue (420 nm) beam. We have coupled both ground-state(More)
Fluorescent particles are routinely used to probe biological processes. The quantum properties of single spins within fluorescent particles have been explored in the field of nanoscale magnetometry, but not yet in biological environments. Here, we demonstrate optically detected magnetic resonance of individual fluorescent nanodiamond nitrogen-vacancy(More)
A quantitative understanding of the dynamics of biological neural networks is fundamental to gaining insight into information processing in the brain. While techniques exist to measure spatial or temporal properties of these networks, it remains a significant challenge to resolve the neural dynamics with subcellular spatial resolution. In this work we(More)
Magnetic field fluctuations arising from fundamental spins are ubiquitous in nanoscale biology, and are a rich source of information about the processes that generate them. However, the ability to detect the few spins involved without averaging over large ensembles has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate the detection of gadolinium spin labels in an(More)
We discuss contrast formation in a propagating x-ray beam. We consider the validity conditions for linear relations based on the transport-of-intensity equation (TIE) and on contrast transfer functions (CTFs). From a single diffracted image, we recover the thickness of a homogeneous object which has substantial absorption and a phase-shift of --0.37 radian.
Ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) has been extensively applied using both x rays and electrons. The extension to atomic resolution has been elusive. This Letter demonstrates ptychographic electron diffractive imaging at atomic resolution, permitting identification of structure in a boron nitride helical cone at a resolution of order 1 Å,(More)
Ultrafast electron diffraction enables the study of molecular structural dynamics with atomic resolution at subpicosecond timescales, with applications in solid-state physics and rational drug design. Progress with ultrafast electron diffraction has been constrained by the limited transverse coherence of high-current electron sources. Photoionization of(More)
Mode stability is an important performance characteristic of external cavity diode lasers (ECDLs). It has been well established that the continuous mode-hop-free tuning range of a grating-feedback ECDL can be optimized by rotating the grating about a specific pivot location. We show that similar results can be obtained for other more convenient pivot(More)