Robert E. Schoen

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BACKGROUND The benefits of endoscopic testing for colorectal-cancer screening are uncertain. We evaluated the effect of screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy on colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality. METHODS From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 154,900 men and women 55 to 74 years of age either to screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy, with a(More)
BACKGROUND Abdominal obesity--an elevated level of visceral adipose tissue--has been linked to colorectal cancer. Furthermore, elevated levels of visceral adipose tissue have been associated with hyperinsulinemia, and insulin is a growth factor in the colon. We assessed whether waist circumference, a surrogate measure of visceral adipose tissue, and(More)
BACKGROUND Interval colorectal cancer (CRC) occasionally is detected in patients who have recently undergone colonoscopy. Systematic evaluation of CRC detected after colonoscopy could identify ways to improve the quality and the outcome of colonoscopy. METHODS This study examined cancer diagnoses in the course of the dietary Polyp Prevention Trial, a(More)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks third among the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide, with wide geographical variation in incidence and mortality across the world. Despite proof that screening can decrease CRC incidence and mortality, CRC screening is only offered to a small proportion of the target population worldwide. Throughout the world there are(More)
Colorectal adenomas and possibly some hyperplastic polyps are precursors of colorectal cancer. Tobacco use is associated in epidemiologic studies with these polyps, although links between smoking and colorectal cancer are less consistent. To characterize the role of tobacco in early colorectal carcinogenesis, we compared tobacco use among 4,383 subjects(More)
BACKGROUND Despite regular colonoscopy, interval colorectal cancer (CRC) may occur. Long-term studies examining CRC rates in patients with previous colonoscopy are lacking. OBJECTIVE We examined the rate of interval CRC in the Polyp Prevention Trial Continued Follow-up Study (PPT-CFS), an observational study of PPT participants that began after the PPT(More)
Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) apoptosis contributes to the development of ulcerative colitis (UC), an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the colon and rectum. Therapies that target the inflammatory cytokine TNF have been found to inhibit IEC apoptosis in patients with IBD, although the mechanism of IEC apoptosis remains unclear. We therefore(More)
OBJECTIVE Vitamin D is a potential agent for the prevention of colorectal cancer possibly through mechanisms mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). We investigated the association of circulating vitamin D metabolites and a genetic variant of the VDR gene with advanced colorectal adenoma, a precursor lesion of colorectal cancer. METHODS Cases with(More)
BACKGROUND Standardized reporting systems for diagnostic and screening tests facilitate quality improvement programs and clear communication among health care providers. Although colonoscopy is commonly used for screening, diagnosis, and therapy, no standardized reporting system for this procedure currently exists. The Quality Assurance Task Group of the(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The recommended timing of surveillance colonoscopy for individuals with adenomatous polyps is based on adenoma histology, size, and number. The burden and cost of surveillance colonoscopy are significant. The aim of this study was to examine the use of surveillance colonoscopy on a community-wide basis. METHODS We retrospectively queried(More)