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Neurofilament protein and calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin are present in morphologically distinct neuronal subpopulations in the mammalian cerebral cortex. Immunohistochemical studies of the hippocampal formation and neocortex have demonstrated that while neurofilament protein and calbindin are localized in subsets of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Studies suggest that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is neuroprotective after experimental cerebral ischemia, but the mechanism is unknown. This study tested the hypotheses that postischemic HBO affords clinical and histopathological neuroprotection after experimental cardiac arrest and resuscitation (A/R) and that this neuroprotection(More)
Neurophysiological experiments in carnivores have revealed the existence of a large number of cortical regions and an organization of sensory systems quite similar to that found in primates. However, the cyto- and chemoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex is relatively poorly known in carnivores. We analyzed the distribution and typology of classes of(More)
OBJECTIVE Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) reduces cerebral infarct size after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats through an unknown mechanism. In other forms of injury, cellular protection with HBO is associated with diminished infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). We hypothesized that HBO given prior to or after MCAO reduces PMN(More)
Resuscitation and prolonged ventilation using 100% oxygen after cardiac arrest is standard clinical practice despite evidence from animal models indicating that neurologic outcome is improved using normoxic compared with hyperoxic resuscitation. This study tested the hypothesis that normoxic ventilation during the first hour after cardiac arrest in dogs(More)
The mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme complex (greater than 7 million Daltons) that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetyl CoA, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (the reduced form, NADH), and CO(2). This reaction constitutes the bridge between anaerobic and aerobic cerebral energy(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Mechanisms of ischemia/reperfusion brain injury include altered patterns of energy metabolism that may be amenable to pharmacological manipulation. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of postischemic acetyl-L-carnitine administration on potentiation of metabolic recovery and prevention of neurological morbidity in(More)
Acetyl-L-carnitine is a naturally occurring substance that, when administered at supraphysiologic concentrations, is neuroprotective in several animal models of global and focal cerebral ischemia. Three primary mechanisms of action are supported by neurochemical outcome measures performed with these models and with in vitro models of acute neuronal cell(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Previous reports indicate that compared with normoxia, 100% ventilatory O(2) during early reperfusion after global cerebral ischemia decreases hippocampal pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and increases neuronal death. However, current standards of care after cardiac arrest encourage the use of 100% O(2) during resuscitation and for an(More)
Chronic impairment of aerobic energy metabolism accompanies global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion and likely contributes to delayed neuronal cell death. Reperfusion-dependent inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) enzyme activity has been described and proposed to be at least partially responsible for this metabolic abnormality. This study(More)