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Mitochondrial degradation is implicated in the irreversible cell damage that can occur during cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. In this study, the effects of 10 min of ventricular fibrillation and 100 min of spontaneous circulation on brain mitochondrial function was studied in dogs in the absence and presence of pretreatment with the Ca2+ antagonist(More)
Neurofilament protein and calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin are present in morphologically distinct neuronal subpopulations in the mammalian cerebral cortex. Immunohistochemical studies of the hippocampal formation and neocortex have demonstrated that while neurofilament protein and calbindin are localized in subsets of(More)
Caspase-9 is critical for cytochrome c (cyto-c)-dependent apoptosis and normal brain development. We determined that this apical protease in the cyto-c pathway for apoptosis resides inside mitochondria in several types of cells, including cardiomyocytes and many neurons. Caspase-9 is released from isolated mitochondria on treatment with Ca2+ or Bax, stimuli(More)
Cannabidiol and other cannabinoids were examined as neuroprotectants in rat cortical neuron cultures exposed to toxic levels of the neurotransmitter, glutamate. The psychotropic cannabinoid receptor agonist delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol, (a non-psychoactive constituent of marijuana), both reduced NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptor mediated(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Studies suggest that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is neuroprotective after experimental cerebral ischemia, but the mechanism is unknown. This study tested the hypotheses that postischemic HBO affords clinical and histopathological neuroprotection after experimental cardiac arrest and resuscitation (A/R) and that this neuroprotection(More)
Acetyl-L-carnitine is a naturally occurring substance that, when administered at supraphysiologic concentrations, is neuroprotective in several animal models of global and focal cerebral ischemia. Three primary mechanisms of action are supported by neurochemical outcome measures performed with these models and with in vitro models of acute neuronal cell(More)
OBJECTIVE Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) reduces cerebral infarct size after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats through an unknown mechanism. In other forms of injury, cellular protection with HBO is associated with diminished infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). We hypothesized that HBO given prior to or after MCAO reduces PMN(More)
Neurophysiological experiments in carnivores have revealed the existence of a large number of cortical regions and an organization of sensory systems quite similar to that found in primates. However, the cyto- and chemoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex is relatively poorly known in carnivores. We analyzed the distribution and typology of classes of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Mechanisms of ischemia/reperfusion brain injury include altered patterns of energy metabolism that may be amenable to pharmacological manipulation. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of postischemic acetyl-L-carnitine administration on potentiation of metabolic recovery and prevention of neurological morbidity in(More)
Resuscitation and prolonged ventilation using 100% oxygen after cardiac arrest is standard clinical practice despite evidence from animal models indicating that neurologic outcome is improved using normoxic compared with hyperoxic resuscitation. This study tested the hypothesis that normoxic ventilation during the first hour after cardiac arrest in dogs(More)