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Neurofilament protein and calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin are present in morphologically distinct neuronal subpopulations in the mammalian cerebral cortex. Immunohistochemical studies of the hippocampal formation and neocortex have demonstrated that while neurofilament protein and calbindin are localized in subsets of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Studies suggest that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is neuroprotective after experimental cerebral ischemia, but the mechanism is unknown. This study tested the hypotheses that postischemic HBO affords clinical and histopathological neuroprotection after experimental cardiac arrest and resuscitation (A/R) and that this neuroprotection(More)
Neurophysiological experiments in carnivores have revealed the existence of a large number of cortical regions and an organization of sensory systems quite similar to that found in primates. However, the cyto- and chemoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex is relatively poorly known in carnivores. We analyzed the distribution and typology of classes of(More)
OBJECTIVE Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) reduces cerebral infarct size after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats through an unknown mechanism. In other forms of injury, cellular protection with HBO is associated with diminished infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). We hypothesized that HBO given prior to or after MCAO reduces PMN(More)
Resuscitation and prolonged ventilation using 100% oxygen after cardiac arrest is standard clinical practice despite evidence from animal models indicating that neurologic outcome is improved using normoxic compared with hyperoxic resuscitation. This study tested the hypothesis that normoxic ventilation during the first hour after cardiac arrest in dogs(More)
The mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme complex (greater than 7 million Daltons) that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetyl CoA, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (the reduced form, NADH), and CO(2). This reaction constitutes the bridge between anaerobic and aerobic cerebral energy(More)
Acetyl-L-carnitine is a naturally occurring substance that, when administered at supraphysiologic concentrations, is neuroprotective in several animal models of global and focal cerebral ischemia. Three primary mechanisms of action are supported by neurochemical outcome measures performed with these models and with in vitro models of acute neuronal cell(More)
Chronic impairment of aerobic energy metabolism accompanies global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion and likely contributes to delayed neuronal cell death. Reperfusion-dependent inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) enzyme activity has been described and proposed to be at least partially responsible for this metabolic abnormality. This study(More)
We investigated the relationships among N-methyl-D-aspartate, glycine, L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, and [3H]dopamine release in a canine model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. The binding of [3H]PN200-110 ([3H]isradipine) to L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, that open as a consequence of N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced changes in(More)
A clinically relevant model of transient global brain ischemia involving cardiac arrest followed by resuscitation in dogs was utilized to study the expression and proteolytic processing of apoptosis-regulatory proteins. In the hippocampus, an increase in pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bcl-XS and Bak was detected, concomitant with proteolysis of Bcl-XL(More)