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BACKGROUND The National Birth Defects Prevention Network collects state-specific birth defects surveillance data for annual publication of prevalence estimates and collaborative research projects. In 2006, data for 21 birth defects from 1999 through 2001 were presented as national birth prevalence estimates. The purpose of this report was to update these(More)
Medial-to-lateral somatotopy is a well-established feature of the human primary somatosensory cortex (SI); however, it is unknown whether, similarly to non-human primates, a rostral-to-caudal somatotopic arrangement exists as well. Therefore, in this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study on eight healthy human subjects, five circumscribed skin(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of NTDs in the US declined significantly after mandatory folic acid fortification; however, it is not known if the prevalence of NTDs has continued to decrease in recent years relative to the period immediately following the fortification mandate. METHODS Population-based data from 21 birth defects surveillance systems were used(More)
This paper reviews the state of the art of research on individual decision-making in high-stakes, low-probability settings. A central theme is that resolving high-stakes decisions optimally poses a formidable challenge not only to naı¨ve decision makers, but also to users of more sophisticated tools, such as decision analysis. Such decisions are difficult(More)
The aim of the present investigation was to examine benzodiazepine sensitivity in abstinent alcoholics. For this purpose, two escalating doses of the benzodiazepine midazolam were i.v. administered to nine alcohol-dependent patients after 2-3 weeks of abstinence and 12 healthy, non-alcoholic volunteers. A variety of dependent measures were examined,(More)
BACKGROUND Clubfoot is associated with maternal cigarette smoking in several studies, but it is not clear if this association is confined to women who smoke throughout the at-risk period. Maternal alcohol and coffee drinking have not been well studied in relation to clubfoot. METHODS The present study used data from a population-based case-control study(More)
Examining the geographic distribution of birth defects can be useful in exploratory etiologic research. Identification of clusters of certain defects may uncover possible environmental or socio-economic risk factors and assist with the generation of hypotheses about underlying causes of these conditions. In North Carolina, the prevalence of gastroschisis, a(More)
BACKGROUND Although clubfoot is a common birth defect, with a prevalence of approximately 1 per 1000 livebirths, the etiology of clubfoot remains largely unknown. Studies of the prevalence and risk factors for clubfoot in the United States have previously been limited to specific states. The purpose of this study was to pool data from several birth defects(More)
BACKGROUND National data on health care use among children with special needs are limited and do not address children with spina bifida (SB). One recent study examined health care costs during 2003 among privately insured individuals with SB. Our objective was to compare health care use and expenditures among publicly insured children with SB to children(More)