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Since its inception, the software industry has been in crisis. As Blazer noted 20 years ago, “[Software] is unreliable, delivered late, unresponsive to change, inefficient, and expensive … and has been for the past 20 years” [4]. In a survey of software contractors and government contract officers, over half of the respondents believed(More)
The Internet could change the lives of average citizens as much as did the telephone in the early part of the 20th century and television in the 1950s and 1960s. Researchers and social critics are debating whether the Internet is improving or harming participation in community life and social relationships. This research examined the social and(More)
<italic>In this paper, we describe the influence of physical proximity on the development of collaborative relationships between scientific researchers and on the execution of their work. Our evidence is drawn from our own studies of scientific collaborators, as well as from observations of research and development activities collected by other(More)
Kraut et al. (1998) reported small but reliable negative effects of using the Internet on measures of social involvement and psychological well-being among Pittsburgh families in 1995-1996. We called the effects a " paradox " because participants in the sample used the Internet heavily for communication, which generally has positive effects. In a 3-year(More)
Collaborations in organizations thrive on communication that is informal because informal communication is frequent, interactive, and expressive. Informal communication is crucial for the coordination of work, learning an organization's culture, the perpetuation of the social relations that underlie collaboration, and, in general, any situation that(More)
Coordinating software tasks across geographic locations is difficult because of factors like: limited opportunities for interaction, lack of contextual references, and leaner communication media. Team cognition research suggests that team knowledge helps members coordinate because they can anticipate task issues more accurately, communicate more efficiently(More)
The intricate choreography necessary to do work in organizations requires effective coordination. This paper uses a variety of data from R & D organizations to describe informal communication and its functions in organizations. It argues that informal communication, generally mediated by physical proximity, is crucial for coordination to occur. Informal(More)
Though social network site use is often treated as a monolithic activity, in which all time is equally social and its impact the same for all users, we examine how Facebook affects social capital depending upon: (1) types of site activities, contrasting one-on-one communication, broadcasts to wider audiences, and passive consumption of social news, and (2)(More)
Online communities depend upon the commitment and voluntary participation of their members. Community design—site navigation, community structure and features, and organizational policies—is critical in this regard. Community design affects how people can interact, the information they receive about one another and the community, and how they can(More)
Under-contribution is a problem for many online communities. Social psychology theories of social loafing and goal-setting can provide mid-level design principles to address this problem. We tested the design principles in two field experiments. In one, members of an online movie recommender community were reminded of the uniqueness of their contributions(More)