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Output per worker varies enormously across countries. Why? On an accounting basis, our analysis shows that differences in physical capital and educational attainment can only partially explain the variation in output per worker — we find a large amount of variation in the level of the Solow residual across countries. At a deeper level, we document that the(More)
The value of a firm's securities measures the value of the firm's productive assets. If the assets include only capital goods and not a permanent monopoly franchise, the value of the securities measures the value of the capital. Finally, if the price of the capital can be measured or inferred, the quantity of capital is the value divided by the price. A(More)
Recessions appear to be times when the marginal rate of substitution between goods and workers' time falls below the marginal product of labor. If so, the allocation of workers' time is inefficient. I develop a model of households and production that reconciles cyclical movements in the marginal value of time and the marginal product. The model embodies the(More)
In a market-clearing economy, declines in demand from one sector do not cause large declines in aggregate output because other sectors expand. The key price mediating the response is the interest rate. A decline in the rate stimulates all categories of spending. But in a low-inflation economy, the room for a decline in the rate is small, because of the(More)
Monetary Trends reports a great many findings—53 are enumerated in the introduc-tion—but paramount is the stability of the demand for money in the US and Britain over the past century. The money stock controls money income. This proposition more than anything else is the point of their painstaking investigation. Friedman and Schwartz argue against what(More)
I offer a macroeconomic view of product markets that combines the desirable properties of the market-clearing models descended from the real business cycle model, on the one hand, and the sticky-price disequilibrium model of modern inflation analysis, on the other hand. I adhere strictly to the basic concept of equilibrium, in that buyers and sellers never(More)