Robert E. Gertz

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Accurate serotyping is essential to monitor the changes in the seroepidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We devised a simple and schematic sequence-based system of seven multiplex PCRs, in a sequence order based upon Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) serotype distribution during 2002 to 2003, to reliably deduce specific pneumococcal serotypes. A(More)
BACKGROUND Serotype 19A invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) increased annually in the United States after the introduction of the 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7). To understand this increase, we characterized serotype 19A isolates recovered during 2005. METHODS IPD cases during 1998-2005 were identified through population-based surveillance. We(More)
BACKGROUND The introduction of the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) in children may result in serotype replacement. We estimated the rate of increase of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by serotype 19A in children <5 years old and determined the genetic composition of these isolates. METHODS Cases of IPD between July 1999 and June(More)
BACKGROUND Following 7-valent conjugate vaccine introduction in the United States in 2000, invasive serotype (sero19A) pneumococcal disease (IPD) emerged rapidly. Sero19A IPD incidence increased slightly during 2005-2008 (from 2.3 cases to 2.5 cases per 100,000 population), whereas sero19A penicillin resistance (defined as a minimum inhibitor concentration(More)
Following introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to the United States, rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by serotype 6A declined among all age groups, while rates of IPD caused by newly identified serotype 6C increased slightly among persons 5 years of age and older. Conventionally serotyped 6A isolates (CS6As) from(More)
Beta-lactam antibiotics (BLAs) are the first-line agents used against group B streptococci (GBS) infection. A clonal set of four independent, invasive GBS isolates with elevated MICs to BLAs were identified that shared a pbp2x mutation (Q557E) corresponding to a resistance-conferring pneumococcal mutation. BLA sensitivity was restored through allelic(More)
Monitoring of serotypes and their clonal associations is critical as pneumococci adapt to the selective pressures exerted by the pneumococcal seven-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7). We genotyped 1,476 invasive isolates from the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (705 [89.8%] of the isolates were obtained from children <5 years of age, and 771 [18.4%] of the(More)
According to population-based invasive pneumococcal surveillance in the United States during 2007, 898 (26%) of 3,511 isolates were penicillin nonsusceptible. Non-7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) serotypes other than 19A accounted for 40% of these penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates; of these, serotypes 15A (11%), 23A (8%), 35B (8%), and 6C(More)
Beta-hemolytic group C and G streptococci cause a considerable invasive disease burden and sometimes cause disease outbreaks. Little is known about the critical epidemiologic parameter of genetic relatedness between isolates. We determined the emm types of 334 Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolates, and attempted emm typing of 5(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae ('pneumococcus') causes an estimated 14.5 million cases of serious disease and 826,000 deaths annually in children under 5 years of age(1). The highly effective introduction of the PCV7 pneumococcal vaccine in 2000 in the United States(2,3) provided an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the response of an important pathogen to(More)