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Accurate serotyping is essential to monitor the changes in the seroepidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We devised a simple and schematic sequence-based system of seven multiplex PCRs, in a sequence order based upon Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) serotype distribution during 2002 to 2003, to reliably deduce specific pneumococcal serotypes. A(More)
Determination of the DNA sequences corresponding to all 91 pneumococcal capsular biosynthetic (cps) loci (1, 3, 6, 9) has allowed serotype determinations from pneumococcal isolates and clinical specimens using conventional PCR assays (2, 4, 7, 8, 10). We developed sequential, multiplexed PCR schemes that resolve 33 serologic specificities, including 20(More)
BACKGROUND Serotype 19A invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) increased annually in the United States after the introduction of the 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7). To understand this increase, we characterized serotype 19A isolates recovered during 2005. METHODS IPD cases during 1998-2005 were identified through population-based surveillance. We(More)
BACKGROUND The introduction of the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) in children may result in serotype replacement. We estimated the rate of increase of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by serotype 19A in children <5 years old and determined the genetic composition of these isolates. METHODS Cases of IPD between July 1999 and June(More)
Beta-lactam antibiotics (BLAs) are the first-line agents used against group B streptococci (GBS) infection. A clonal set of four independent, invasive GBS isolates with elevated MICs to BLAs were identified that shared a pbp2x mutation (Q557E) corresponding to a resistance-conferring pneumococcal mutation. BLA sensitivity was restored through allelic(More)
BACKGROUND Following 7-valent conjugate vaccine introduction in the United States in 2000, invasive serotype (sero19A) pneumococcal disease (IPD) emerged rapidly. Sero19A IPD incidence increased slightly during 2005-2008 (from 2.3 cases to 2.5 cases per 100,000 population), whereas sero19A penicillin resistance (defined as a minimum inhibitor concentration(More)
A pneumococcal serotyping/genotyping system (PSGS) was developed based upon targeted PCR, followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and amplicon base composition analysis. Eight multiplex PCRs, 32 targeting serotype-determining capsular biosynthetic loci, and 8 targeting multilocus sequence typing (MLST) loci were employed for each of 229 highly(More)
BACKGROUND Strong correlations have been reported between expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and poor prognosis in several human carcinomas. The clinical significance of secreted levels of uPA, its receptor (uPAR), and its inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2) in the ascites of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer patients was investigated.(More)
Following introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to the United States, rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by serotype 6A declined among all age groups, while rates of IPD caused by newly identified serotype 6C increased slightly among persons 5 years of age and older. Conventionally serotyped 6A isolates (CS6As) from(More)
Monitoring of serotypes and their clonal associations is critical as pneumococci adapt to the selective pressures exerted by the pneumococcal seven-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7). We genotyped 1,476 invasive isolates from the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (705 [89.8%] of the isolates were obtained from children <5 years of age, and 771 [18.4%] of the(More)