Robert E. Fontaine

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Epizootics of encephalitis in El Salvador killed 203 equines between November 2001 and April 2003. During an investigation of the outbreaks, 18 (25%) of 73 serum samples collected from stablemates of deceased animals in 2003 had antibodies to West Nile virus. Ten of these infections were confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization tests, suggesting West(More)
Cases of toxic distal polyneuropathy have been studied in a plant producing plastic-coated and color-printed fabrics. After the screenig of 1,157 employees, a total of 86 verified cases were detected. Of these, 11 were moderate to severe in intensity and usually with motor and sensory involvement; 38 were mild, with sensory signs prevailing; and 37 were(More)
On August 3, 1976, ongoing Salmonella surveillance in Colorado first detected an epidemic of Salmonella heidelberg infections that eventually totaled 339 isolates. The majority of the cases occurred between July 23 and August 12 in two widely separated cities: Denver and Pueblo. Epidemiologic investigation successively incriminated 1) recent dining at(More)
BACKGROUND Glucocorticoids increase the risk of developing critical disease from viral infections. However, primary care practitioners in China use them as antipyretics, potentially exposing hundreds of millions to this risk. METHODS We enrolled all patients with confirmed pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) virus infection aged ≥3 years with available medical(More)
During March and April of 1992, the health surveillance system began detecting increasing numbers of cases of meningococcal disease (MCD) in the Islamic holy city of Makkah (Mecca). We identified 102 bacteriologically confirmed cases (CC) and 80 suspected cases (SC) of MCD. Neisseria meningitidis was identified as Group A, III-1 clone. The ratio of(More)
This paper is an attempt to relate modifications observed in general and infant mortality rates with the dynamic changes in transmission induced by malaria control measures. The observations indicated relationships between the efficacy of control and a decrease in mortality. The daily parasitological inoculation rate was reduced from 0.00958 infective bites(More)
An interstate common-source outbreak of salmonellosis was first detected in the United States in September and October, 1975, when a tenfold increase in Salmonella newport isolates was noted through routine salmonella surveillance by the Colorado Department of Health. Eighteen primary cases with a distinctive antibiotic resistance pattern (tetracycline,(More)
An outbreak of acute schistosomiasis occurred among a group of adventurers who took part in a rafting expedition on the Omo River in Ethiopia in November 1981. Six (55%) of the 11 members of the expedition experienced Schistosoma mansoni infection confirmed by stool examination. Five of these six had symptoms compatible with acute schistosomiasis.(More)