Robert E. Bolcome

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Group A streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes or GAS) freshly isolated from individuals with streptococcal sore throat or invasive ("flesh-eating") infection often grow as mucoid colonies on primary culture but lose this colony appearance after laboratory passage. The mucoid phenotype is due to abundant production of the hyaluronic acid capsular(More)
Vascular dysfunction has been reported in human cases of anthrax, in mammalian models of Bacillus anthracis, and in animals injected with anthrax toxin proteins. To examine anthrax lethal toxin effects on intact blood vessels, we developed a zebrafish model that permits in vivo imaging and evaluation of vasculature and cardiovascular function. Vascular(More)
The proteins that comprise anthrax toxin self-assemble at the mammalian cell surface into a series of toxic complexes, each containing a heptameric form of protective antigen (PA) plus up to a total of three molecules of the enzymatic moieties of the toxin (lethal factor [LF] and edema factor [EF]). These complexes are trafficked to the endosome, where the(More)
The hemolytic phospholipase C (PlcHR) expressed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the original member of a Phosphoesterase Superfamily, which includes phosphorylcholine-specific phospholipases C (PC-PLC) produced by frank and opportunistic pathogens. PlcHR, but not all its family members, is also a potent sphingomyelinase (SMase). Data presented herein indicate(More)
Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) increases vascular leakage in a number of mammalian models and in human anthrax disease. Using a zebrafish model, we determined that vascular delivery of LT increased permeability, which was phenocopied by treatment with a selective chemical inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2 (also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK] kinase,(More)
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