Robert E Arendt

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The present study investigated the neurobehavioral outcomes of fetal cocaine exposure. Attempts were made to control, by design or statistical analysis, for significant confounders. Timing and amount of drug exposures were considered, and biologic measures of exposure were quantified to classify exposure severity. One hundred sixty-one non-cocaine and 158(More)
Data are equivocal regarding the long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to cocaine on school-aged children. We compared 101 children exposed prenatally to cocaine with 130 unexposed children on measures of intelligence, visual motor, and motor abilities at age 7 years. Bivariate analyses revealed that cocaine-exposed children scored significantly lower(More)
CONTEXT Maternal use of cocaine during pregnancy remains a significant public health problem, particularly in urban areas of the United States and among women of low socioeconomic status. Few longitudinal studies have examined cocaine-exposed infants, however, and findings are contradictory because of methodologic limitations. OBJECTIVE To assess the(More)
Maternal cocaine use during pregnancy can affect the infant directly through toxic effects or indirectly through cocaine's influence on maternal psychological status. We followed 160 cocaine exposed and 56 nonexposed infants and their mothers identified at birth through interview and/or urine screen. Although cocaine exposure defined the groups, infant(More)
CONTEXT Because of methodological limitations, the results of the few prospective studies assessing long-term cognitive effects of prenatal cocaine exposure are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE To assess effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and quality of caregiving environment on 4-year cognitive outcomes. DESIGN Longitudinal, prospective, masked comparison(More)
A large cohort of children exposed to cocaine in utero (n=189) were followed prospectively from birth to 4 years of age and compared to nonexposed children (n=185) on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool (CELF-P), a measure of receptive and expressive language abilities. Children exposed to cocaine in utero performed more poorly on the(More)
BACKGROUND Reports from clinical and experimental (animal) research converge on the suggestion that prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, or marijuana undermines executive functioning (EF) and its neurological underpinnings. However, large, adequately controlled, prospective studies of alcohol and marijuana effects on EF have reported conflicting findings,(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate neonatal sequelae of maternal cocaine use during pregnancy. METHODS One hundred women positive for cocaine use during pregnancy were compared with 100 matched controls who did not use cocaine. Maternal characteristics and infant neonatal outcomes were compared. We used t tests, chi 2, and multiple regression analyses to evaluate the(More)
Deficits in sustained attention and impulsivity have previously been demonstrated in preschoolers prenatally exposed to cocaine. We assessed an additional component of attention, selective attention, in a large, poly-substance cocaine-exposed cohort of 4 year olds and their at-risk comparison group. Employing postpartum maternal report and biological assay,(More)
To assess teratogenic effects of cocaine exposure and maternal psychological distress on birth outcomes, we conducted a longitudinal prospective study of 415 infants (218 cocaine-exposed--CE, 197 nonexposed--NE). Drug exposure was determined through a combination of maternal self-report, urine, and meconium screens. Maternal psychological distress(More)