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Retinal rods signal the activation of a single receptor molecule by a photon. To ensure efficient photon capture, rods maintain about 109 copies of rhodopsin densely packed into membranous disks. But a high packing density of rhodopsin may impede other steps in phototransduction that take place on the disk membrane, by restricting the lateral movement of,(More)
Photoreceptor excitation begins with the absorption of a photon by rhodopsin and proceeds through an unknown sequence of steps that leads to changes in specific ionic conductances. These conductance changes produce the receptor potential. It has been proposed that hydrolysis of phosphoinositides is involved in the control of a variety of physiological(More)
Mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) are specified between embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5) and E7.5, when they have been visualized as an alkaline phosphatase-positive (AP+) cell population in the developing allantois. By E8.5, they are embedded in the hind-gut epithelium. Previous experiments have suggested different sites for PGCs' origin, and it is unclear how(More)
Epileptogenic foci were created by topical application of penicillin to the cerebral cortex in 40 paralyzed and artificially ventilated cats receiving halothane anesthesia. The animals were divided into two equal groups to compare primary and secondary foci. The following variables were recorded at normocapnia, hypocapnia, and hypercapnia prior to and(More)
PURPOSE Disruption of widely expressed essential genes in mice often leads to embryonic or neonatal lethality. To circumvent this problem and dissect gene functions in the cone photoreceptors, we elected to generate cone photoreceptor specific cre transgenic mice. METHODS Transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase directed by the human red/green pigment(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Corticotropin releasing factor is an endogenous neuropeptide released by the hypothalamus that activates the pituitary-adrenocortical system in response to stressful stimuli. It has been demonstrated that corticotropin releasing factor increases the excitability of hippocampal neurons in both in vitro and in vivo studies, which may(More)
PURPOSE Commonly used behavioral and electrical testing methods for estimation of visual acuity and visual function in infants yield different estimates and may not accurately predict visual acuity and visual function in later life. Moreover, neither test-retest variability nor side-by-side comparisons of the various methods have been thoroughly evaluated(More)
PURPOSE The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) expresses many genes that play important roles in the support and maintenance of photoreceptors. The present study was conducted to develop a system amenable to the dissection of the temporal function of these genes, specifically within RPE cells. Transgenic mice were generated and characterized in which the(More)
PURPOSE In recent years, detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) have been isolated in in vitro models of lipid rafts, from photoreceptor outer segments (ROS), and the localization of a specific complement of photoreceptor proteins has been demonstrated. However, surprisingly little is known about the lipid composition of these important membrane domains. The(More)
PURPOSE Isolating retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells from adult rat was the goal of this study. METHOD A modification of the procedure of Mayerson et al was the method employed. After the cornea and lens were removed, the eyecup was treated with hyaluronidase plus collagenase. The neural retina was carefully removed with little RPE attached. The(More)