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Retinal rods signal the activation of a single receptor molecule by a photon. To ensure efficient photon capture, rods maintain about 109 copies of rhodopsin densely packed into membranous disks. But a high packing density of rhodopsin may impede other steps in phototransduction that take place on the disk membrane, by restricting the lateral movement of,(More)
Mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) are specified between embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5) and E7.5, when they have been visualized as an alkaline phosphatase-positive (AP+) cell population in the developing allantois. By E8.5, they are embedded in the hind-gut epithelium. Previous experiments have suggested different sites for PGCs' origin, and it is unclear how(More)
Photoreceptor excitation begins with the absorption of a photon by rhodopsin and proceeds through an unknown sequence of steps that leads to changes in specific ionic conductances. These conductance changes produce the receptor potential. It has been proposed that hydrolysis of phosphoinositides is involved in the control of a variety of physiological(More)
With their ability to depolymerize microtubules (MTs), KinI kinesins are the rogue members of the kinesin family. Here we present the 1.6 A crystal structure of a KinI motor core from Plasmodium falciparum, which is sufficient for depolymerization in vitro. Unlike all published kinesin structures to date, nucleotide is not present, and there are noticeable(More)
PURPOSE Disruption of widely expressed essential genes in mice often leads to embryonic or neonatal lethality. To circumvent this problem and dissect gene functions in the cone photoreceptors, we elected to generate cone photoreceptor specific cre transgenic mice. METHODS Transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase directed by the human red/green pigment(More)
Epileptogenic foci were created by topical application of penicillin to the cerebral cortex in 40 paralyzed and artificially ventilated cats receiving halothane anesthesia. The animals were divided into two equal groups to compare primary and secondary foci. The following variables were recorded at normocapnia, hypocapnia, and hypercapnia prior to and(More)
PURPOSE Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of honeybee propolis, has a wide range of beneficial properties. The purpose of this study was to test the protective role of CAPE in 661W cells (in vitro) against H(2)O(2)-mediated cell death and in albino rats (in vivo) against various light conditions. METHODS The 661W cells were(More)
Rhodopsins are densely packed in rod outer-segment membranes to maximize photon absorption, but this arrangement interferes with transducin activation by restricting the mobility of both proteins. We attempted to explore this phenomenon in transgenic mice that overexpressed rhodopsin in their rods. Photon capture was improved, and, for a given number of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Corticotropin releasing factor is an endogenous neuropeptide released by the hypothalamus that activates the pituitary-adrenocortical system in response to stressful stimuli. It has been demonstrated that corticotropin releasing factor increases the excitability of hippocampal neurons in both in vitro and in vivo studies, which may(More)
PURPOSE The retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) expresses many genes that play important roles in the support and maintenance of photoreceptors. The present study was conducted to develop a system amenable to the dissection of the temporal function of these genes, specifically within RPE cells. Transgenic mice were generated and characterized in which the(More)