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Retinal rods signal the activation of a single receptor molecule by a photon. To ensure efficient photon capture, rods maintain about 109 copies of rhodopsin densely packed into membranous disks. But a high packing density of rhodopsin may impede other steps in phototransduction that take place on the disk membrane, by restricting the lateral movement of,(More)
Mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) are specified between embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5) and E7.5, when they have been visualized as an alkaline phosphatase-positive (AP+) cell population in the developing allantois. By E8.5, they are embedded in the hind-gut epithelium. Previous experiments have suggested different sites for PGCs' origin, and it is unclear how(More)
Photoreceptor excitation begins with the absorption of a photon by rhodopsin and proceeds through an unknown sequence of steps that leads to changes in specific ionic conductances. These conductance changes produce the receptor potential. It has been proposed that hydrolysis of phosphoinositides is involved in the control of a variety of physiological(More)
Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3) is a dominantly inherited juvenile macular degeneration that eventually leads to loss of vision. Three independent mutations causing STGD3 have been identified in exon six of a gene named Elongation of very long chain fatty acids 4 (ELOVL4). The ELOVL4 protein was predicted to be involved in fatty acid elongation,(More)
PURPOSE Commonly used behavioral and electrical testing methods for estimation of visual acuity and visual function in infants yield different estimates and may not accurately predict visual acuity and visual function in later life. Moreover, neither test-retest variability nor side-by-side comparisons of the various methods have been thoroughly evaluated(More)
With their ability to depolymerize microtubules (MTs), KinI kinesins are the rogue members of the kinesin family. Here we present the 1.6 A crystal structure of a KinI motor core from Plasmodium falciparum, which is sufficient for depolymerization in vitro. Unlike all published kinesin structures to date, nucleotide is not present, and there are noticeable(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from several adult human tissues are reported to be a promising tool for regenerative medicine. In order to broaden the array of tools for therapeutic application, we isolated a new population of cells from adult human testis termed gonadal stem cells (GSCs). GSCs express CD105, CD166, CD73, CD90, STRO-1 and lack(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease that has potential involvement of inflammatory and oxidative stress-related pathways in its pathogenesis. In search of effective therapeutic agents, we tested curcumin, a naturally occurring compound with known anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties, in a rat model of light-induced retinal(More)
PURPOSE Disruption of widely expressed essential genes in mice often leads to embryonic or neonatal lethality. To circumvent this problem and dissect gene functions in the cone photoreceptors, we elected to generate cone photoreceptor specific cre transgenic mice. METHODS Transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase directed by the human red/green pigment(More)
The time course of changes in cortical tissue pH (pHi) and blood flow during cortical seizures in halothane-anesthetized cats was examined. The clearance of the molecular form of umbelliferone (Um) was used to estimate focal cortical blood flow (CBFu), whereas the ratio of the molecular to the ionic form of the molecule was used to concurrently calculate(More)