Robert Dutton

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A number of different cytokines, each initially characterized on the basis of very different biological activities, all have very similar signalling pathways and share a similar tertiary structure. These cytokines include leukaemia inhibitory factor, ciliary neuronotrophic factor, oncostatin M, growth-promoting activity and cardiotrophin 1. They all have(More)
Previously we have shown that leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) potentiates the development of murine spinal cord neurons in vitro, suggesting that it, or related factors, may play an important regulatory role in neuronal development. We have further investigated this role and show here that the generation of neurons in cultures of embryonic day 10 spinal(More)
This paper presents several design issues of CMOS latch/flip-flops for meta-stable hardness in terms of optimal device size, aspect ratio, and configurations by using the AC small signal analysis in the frequency domain rather than the time domain. This new design approach is verified experimentally. T h e power supply disturbance and temperature variation(More)
We have investigated the differentiation potential of precursor cells within the developing spinal cord of mice and have shown that spinal cord cells from embryonic day 10 specifically give rise to neurons when plated onto an astrocytic monolayer, Ast-1. These neurons had the morphology of motor neurons and > 83% expressed the motor neuron markers choline(More)
Precursors from the neuroepithelium of the developing cortex and the adult subventricular zone can be cloned in vitro after stimulation with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), and they have the potential to give rise to both neurons and glia. The generation of neurons from these clones can be stimulated by either a factor derived from an astrocyte(More)
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is strongly implicated in the development of ventral structures in the nervous system. Addition of Sonic hedgehog protein to chick spinal cord explants induces floor plate and motoneuron development. Whether Shh acts directly to induce these cell types or whether their induction is mediated by additional factors is unknown. To further(More)
1. The development of ventral cell types in the spinal cord, including motor neurons, requires the growth factor Sonic hedgehog (Shh). However, it is still unknown whether Shh acts directly on precursors to induce these cell types and whether additional factors are required for induction. 2. To further investigate the precise role of Shh in spinal(More)
The development of the nervous system is partly regulated by growth factors, especially by members of the fibroblast growth factor family (FGF) family. Both the proliferation and differentiation of neuronal precursor cells within the developing neural tube appear to depend upon appropriate stimulation with FGF-1 or FGF-2. Recently, it has been shown that(More)
This paper will detail the capabilities of a new geometric modeling tool, called Geodesic, which is being released in source code form to the general community. In addition to providing geometric operations to create geometry useful in MEMS simulation, it uniquely offers a fully integrated 3-D levelset kernel that permits highly accurate physically based(More)
This study reports a case of type VII mucopolysaccharidosis (beta-glucuronidase deficiency) presenting as lethal hydrops fetalis. Skin fibroblast cultures established postmortem revealed deficient beta-glucuronidase activity. Mucopolysaccharides were stored in various cells of the brain, heart, kidney, liver, and spleen. The stages of maturation of the(More)