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BACKGROUND Serum cystatin C was proposed as a potential replacement for serum creatinine in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation. We report the development and evaluation of GFR-estimating equations using serum cystatin C alone and serum cystatin C, serum creatinine, or both with demographic variables. STUDY DESIGN Test of diagnostic accuracy. (More)
The up-and-down procedure (UDP), fixed-dose procedure (FDP) and conventional LD50 tests were compared to determine their consistency in chemical hazard classification for acute oral toxicity according to the European Economic Community (EEC) system. There was consistent classification for 23 out of 25 cases between the UDP and the conventional LD50 results,(More)
Guinea pigs were exposed once a week for 10 weeks by intratracheal exposure to solutions of 3, 1, 0.3, or 0.1 micrograms of the enzyme protein, Subtilisn Carlsberg (Alcalase), in 250 micrograms of a detergent base. Other groups of guinea pigs were exposed by inhalation (6 hr per day, 4 days a week) to 1 mg/m3 of the aerosolized detergent base containing(More)
HIV/AIDS and chemical dependency, the latter often intertwined with mental illness, are complex, overlapping spheres that adversely influence each other and the overall clinical outcomes of the affected individual. Each disorder individually impact tens of millions of people adversely, with explosive epidemics described worldwide. This article addresses the(More)
A majority of inmates in the state of Connecticut Department of Corrections use opioids or are opioid dependent before incarceration. None of the state's prisons offer opioid substitution therapy other than for detoxification or maintenance therapy for women during pregnancy. On release to the community, most prisoners relapse to drug use and this has been(More)
Despite its benefit for treating active tuberculosis, directly observed therapy (DOT) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been largely understudied among challenging inner city populations. Utilizing questionnaire data from a comprehensive mobile healthcare clinic in New Haven, CT from 2003 to July 2011, a total of 2,523 completed tuberculin skin(More)
  • R D Bruce
  • 1985
An up-and down method for acute toxicity (LD50) testing has been developed and statistically evaluated. Compared with the "classical" procedure, this method permits a major reduction in the number of animals used. In the up-and-down procedure, animals are dosed one at a time. If an animal survives, the dose for the next animal is increased; if it dies, the(More)
BACKGROUND Directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) is one approach to improve treatment adherence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected drug users. METHODS In this randomized, controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00367172), the biological outcomes of a 6-month community intervention of DAART were compared with those(More)
The reproducibility of toxicologic test methods, including alternative tests, is a key scientific and regulatory concern. In the present work, historic rabbit eye irritation data were used to determine the intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility of the low volume eye test (LVET). The standard Draize eye irritation test was used as the basis for(More)