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Twenty-nine patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis were reviewed. Males predominated (2:1). Seventy-six per cent presented with cholestasis and cholangitis, 17% with cirrhosis and portal hypertension, and 7% were asymptomatic, presenting with a raised serum alkaline phosphatase. The serum immunoglobulin IgM concentration was raised in 45% of the(More)
Copper plays an essential role in promoting angiogenesis. Tumors that become angiogenic acquire the ability to enter a phase of rapid growth and exhibit increased metastatic potential, the major cause of morbidity in cancer patients. We report that copper deficiency induced by tetrathiomolybdate (TM) significantly impairs tumor growth and angiogenesis in(More)
Preclinical and in vitro studies have determined that copper is an important cofactor for angiogenesis. Tetrathiomolybdate (TM) was developed as an effective anticopper therapy for the initial treatment of Wilson's disease, an autosomal recessive disorder that leads to abnormal copper accumulation. Given the potency and uniqueness of the anticopper action(More)
XIAP is a potent suppressor of apoptosis that directly inhibits specific members of the caspase family of cysteine proteases. Here we demonstrate a novel role for XIAP in the control of intracellular copper levels. XIAP was found to interact with MURR1, a factor recently implicated in copper homeostasis. XIAP binds to MURR1 in a manner that is distinct from(More)
Twenty-five patients with stenosis of the vena cava (21) and other large veins (4) have been treated with self-expanding Gianturco metallic stents. Eighteen patients had superior vena cava syndrome. In 17, the stricture was due to malignant superior vena cava compression recurrent after maximum tolerance radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. In 16 of these(More)
BACKGROUND Endoscopic stenting is an effective method of relieving biliary obstruction in patients with unresectable malignancy. If this fails, optimal management is controversial. Percutaneous insertion of plastic or mesh metal stents has been advocated. AIM To review the outcome of percutaneous plastic stents and compare this with contemporary data from(More)
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), known primarily for its caspase inhibitory properties, has recently been shown to interact with and regulate the levels of COMMD1, a protein associated with a form of canine copper toxicosis. Here, we describe a role for XIAP in copper metabolism. We find that XIAP levels are greatly reduced by intracellular copper(More)
BACKGROUND Uncontrolled variceal haemorrhage is the main indication for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. However, mortality is 50% for this high-risk group. We have evaluated clinical and laboratory variables prior to transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in order to establish predictors of mortality, validated prospectively. METHOD(More)
Ceruloplasmin (CP), the major plasma anti-oxidant and copper transport protein, is synthesized in several tissues, including the brain. We compared regional brain concentrations of CP and copper between subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 12), Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 14), Huntington's disease (HD, n = 11), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, n(More)