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determined as precisely as needed by choosing a sufficiently large time interval (t 2 Ϫ t 1) between the corresponding measurements of z. 9. Analysis of structures means that the structures were animated by the use of the Xmol program. Visual inspection of snapshots (similar to those available to online subscribers at http://www.sciencemag.org) allowed me(More)
Ceruloplasmin (CP), the major plasma anti-oxidant and copper transport protein, is synthesized in several tissues, including the brain. We compared regional brain concentrations of CP and copper between subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 12), Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 14), Huntington's disease (HD, n = 11), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, n(More)
Copper plays an essential role in promoting angiogenesis. Tumors that become angiogenic acquire the ability to enter a phase of rapid growth and exhibit increased metastatic potential, the major cause of morbidity in cancer patients. We report that copper deficiency induced by tetrathio-molybdate (TM) significantly impairs tumor growth and angiogenesis in(More)
XIAP is a potent suppressor of apoptosis that directly inhibits specific members of the caspase family of cysteine proteases. Here we demonstrate a novel role for XIAP in the control of intracellular copper levels. XIAP was found to interact with MURR1, a factor recently implicated in copper homeostasis. XIAP binds to MURR1 in a manner that is distinct from(More)
Preclinical and in vitro studies have determined that copper is an important cofactor for angiogenesis. Tetrathiomolybdate (TM) was developed as an effective anticopper therapy for the initial treatment of Wilson's disease, an autosomal recessive disorder that leads to abnormal copper accumulation. Given the potency and uniqueness of the anticopper action(More)
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), known primarily for its caspase inhibitory properties, has recently been shown to interact with and regulate the levels of COMMD1, a protein associated with a form of canine copper toxicosis. Here, we describe a role for XIAP in copper metabolism. We find that XIAP levels are greatly reduced by intracellular copper(More)
Huntington disease is an uncommon autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by expanded polyglutamine repeats in the huntingtin protein. The proximate mechanisms responsible for neurodegeneration are unknown. Copper ions may play a role in Huntington disease by promoting oligomerization of expanded polyglutamine repeat protein fragments. Ammonium(More)
Tetrathiomolybdate (TM) is a potent nontoxic orally delivered copper complexing agent under development for the last several years for the treatment of Wilson's disease. It has been shown to block angiogenesis in primary and metastatic tumors. Therefore, the combination of cytotoxic radiotherapy (RT) and antiangiogenic TM could target both the existing(More)
Patients with Wilson's disease who present with acute neurological symptoms often become clinically worse when initially treated with penicillamine. Other available anticopper drug therapies do not appear to offer a solution to this treatment problem. We are developing and evaluating a new drug, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate for this purpose. Theoretically,(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the efficacy and toxic effects of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate in the initial treatment of a relatively large series of patients with neurologic symptoms and signs caused by Wilson disease. Two key aspects of efficacy are to preserve the neurologic function present at the onset of therapy and to maximize the opportunity for long-term(More)