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When subjects direct attention to a particular location in a visual scene, responses in the visual cortex to stimuli presented at that location are enhanced, and the suppressive influences of nearby distractors are reduced. What is the top-down signal that modulates the response to an attended versus an unattended stimulus? Here, we demonstrate increased(More)
When attention is directed to a location in the visual field, sensitivity to stimuli at that location is increased. At the neuronal level, this could arise either through a multiplicative increase in firing rate or through an increase in the effective strength of the stimulus. To test conflicting predictions of these alternative models, we recorded(More)
Our capacity to process and respond behaviourally to multiple incoming stimuli is very limited. To optimize the use of this limited capacity, attentional mechanisms give priority to behaviourally relevant stimuli at the expense of irrelevant distractors. In visual areas, attended stimuli induce enhanced responses and an improved synchronization of rhythmic(More)
Selective attention lends relevant sensory input priority access to higher-level brain areas and ultimately to behavior. Recent studies have suggested that those neurons in visual areas that are activated by an attended stimulus engage in enhanced gamma-band (30-70 Hz) synchronization compared with neurons activated by a distracter. Such precise(More)
To find a target object in a crowded scene, a face in a crowd for example, the visual system might turn the neural representation of each object on and off in a serial fashion, testing each representation against a template of the target item. Alternatively, it might allow the processing of all objects in parallel but bias activity in favor of those neurons(More)
Electrical recordings in humans and monkeys show attentional enhancement of evoked responses and gamma synchrony in ventral stream cortical areas. Does this synchrony result from intrinsic activity in visual cortex or from inputs from other structures? Using paired recordings in the frontal eye field (FEF) and area V4, we found that attention to a stimulus(More)
To understand how brain states and behaviors are generated by neural circuits, it would be useful to be able to perturb precisely the activity of specific cell types and pathways in the nonhuman primate nervous system. We used lentivirus to target the light-activated cation channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) specifically to excitatory neurons of the macaque(More)
less impaired on less attentionally demanding tasks such as detecting a " popout " stimulus. features of an object are processed to a certain extent by different neurons within the visual system. For example, For purposes of this review, we will define the binding some neurons in areas V2 and V4 respond selectively problem as the problem of how the visual(More)