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We reviewed evidence of the clinical implications and burden of malaria in pregnancy. Most studies come from sub-Saharan Africa, where approximately 25 million pregnant women are at risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection every year, and one in four women have evidence of placental infection at the time of delivery. P falciparum infections during pregnancy(More)
To determine the frequency of the parasitic pathogens in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in a developing world setting, 295 stool specimens were examined from 166 HIV-positive patients (49% with AIDS) at São José Hospital, Fortaleza, Brazil, from September 1990 to March 1992. Significantly more patients with diarrhea (85%) than without(More)
Persistent diarrhea (PD; duration >/=14 days) is a growing part of the global burden of diarrheal diseases. A 45-month prospective cohort study (with illness, nutritional, and microbiologic surveillance) was conducted in a shantytown in northeastern Brazil, to elucidate the epidemiology, nutritional impact, and causes of PD in early childhood (0-3 years of(More)
OBJECTIVES In December 2005 and March 2006, Niger conducted nationwide integrated campaigns to distribute polio vaccine and long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) to children <5 years of age. We evaluated the campaign effectiveness, net retention, insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership, and usage. METHODS Two nationwide cross-sectional surveys in(More)
The interruption of malaria transmission worldwide is one of the greatest challenges for international health and development communities. The current expert view suggests that, by aggressively scaling up control with currently available tools and strategies, much greater gains could be achieved against malaria, including elimination from a number of(More)
Cryptosporidium is an important cause of infectious diarrhoea worldwide, but little is known about the course of illness when infected with different species. Over a period of 5 years, Cryptosporidium was identified in the stools of 58 of 157 children prospectively followed from birth in an urban slum (favela) in northeast Brazil. Forty isolates were(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the epidemiology of Giardia lamblia infection, investigate factors which might be associated with clinical manifestations and recurrence, and examine the role of copathogens in disease course. METHODS Prospective 4-year cohort study of children born in an urban slum in north-eastern Brazil. RESULTS Of 157 children followed for > or(More)
In sub-Saharan Africa, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria are among the leading causes of morbidity during pregnancy. We reviewed available information collected since the first report 15 years ago that HIV impaired the ability of pregnant women to control malaria parasitemia. Results from 11 studies showed that HIV-infected women experienced(More)
Data on the relationship between the two genotypes of Giardia duodenalis that infect humans, assemblages A and B, their clinical presentation and intestinal inflammation are limited. We analyzed 108 stool samples previously collected for a diarrhoeal study among Brazilian children, representing 71 infections in 47 children. Assemblage B was most prevalent,(More)
BACKGROUND Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a promising strategy for malaria control in infants. We undertook a pooled analysis of the safety and efficacy of IPT in infants (IPTi) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Africa. METHODS We pooled data from six double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trials (undertaken one each in Tanzania,(More)