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We present here both linear regressions and multivariate analyses correlating three global neuropsychological tests with a number of structural and neurochemical measurements performed on a prospective series of 15 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 9 neuropathologically normal subjects. The statistical data show only weak correlations between(More)
A spectrum of neurocognitive defects, termed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated cognitive/motor complex, has been described in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a severe form of this disease seen in 20 to 30% of terminally ill patients. The etiology of this complex is distinct from(More)
The neuroanatomical location and cytological features of cholinergic neurons in the rat brain were determined by the immunocytochemical localization of the biosynthetic enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Perikarya labeled with ChAT were detected in four major cell groups: (1) the striatum, (2) the magnocellular basal nucleus, (3) the pontine(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extensive synaptic and neuronal loss and by plaque formation in the cortex, but the mechanisms responsible for synaptic plasticity in the neocortex are still not completely understood. To analyze the sprouting response in AD cortex, we compared the patterns of GAP-43 with synaptophysin immunoreactivity. In AD,(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an extensive loss of neurons and synapses in the neocortex which correlates strongly with psychometric tests of dementia. To characterize the ultrastructural changes in presynaptic terminals in AD, we studied biopsy material from the frontal cortex. We also examined, at the ultrastructural level, abnormal(More)
Fifty-one brains from clinically and neuropathologically normal individuals ranging in age from 24 to 100 years were studied to determine what changes occur in neocortical neuroectodermal cell populations as a function of normal aging. Twenty-mu-thick sections from the midfrontal, superior temporal, and inferior parietal areas were examined with an(More)
Fourteen case histories of persons who had a histological diagnosis of either senile dementia of the Alzheimer type, multiinfarct dementia, or a mixed dementia composed of these two types and who showed evidence of a moderate to severe dementia on psychological testing were rated for the presence of thirteen clinical features comprising Hachinski's Ischemic(More)
Recent studies have shown that the Alzheimer disease (AD) neocortex is characterized by a loss of large neurons, the presence of dilated terminal axons, widespread loss of synapses, and a disruption of the dendritic cytoskeleton which is manifested as Tau immunoreactive threads. In the present study we have investigated the relationship between synaptic and(More)
Our prior research on patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) found a high correspondence between premortem dementia and accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) with concurrent loss of synapse density in several brain regions. In the present study, we examined these same clinicopathologic relationships in the context of seven subregions of the(More)
The number of Thioflavine S-positive neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and neuritic plaques (NP) was determined in visual and auditory cortical regions of 8 patients with Alzheimer's disease. On both a regional and laminar basis, NFT exhibited very distinctive and consistent distribution patterns. The mean (+/- SEM) number of NFT in a 250-micron-wide cortical(More)