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We present here both linear regressions and multivariate analyses correlating three global neuropsychological tests with a number of structural and neurochemical measurements performed on a prospective series of 15 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 9 neuropathologically normal subjects. The statistical data show only weak correlations between(More)
The number of Thioflavine S-positive neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and neuritic plaques (NP) was determined in visual and auditory cortical regions of 8 patients with Alzheimer's disease. On both a regional and laminar basis, NFT exhibited very distinctive and consistent distribution patterns. The mean (+/- SEM) number of NFT in a 250-micron-wide cortical(More)
The neuroanatomical location and cytological features of cholinergic neurons in the rat brain were determined by the immunocytochemical localization of the biosynthetic enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Perikarya labeled with ChAT were detected in four major cell groups: (1) the striatum, (2) the magnocellular basal nucleus, (3) the pontine(More)
Fourteen case histories of persons who had a histological diagnosis of either senile dementia of the Alzheimer type, multiinfarct dementia, or a mixed dementia composed of these two types and who showed evidence of a moderate to severe dementia on psychological testing were rated for the presence of thirteen clinical features comprising Hachinski's Ischemic(More)
A spectrum of neurocognitive defects, termed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated cognitive/motor complex, has been described in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a severe form of this disease seen in 20 to 30% of terminally ill patients. The etiology of this complex is distinct from(More)
Postmortem examination was performed on 137 residents (average age 85.5 years) of a skilled nursing facility whose mental status, memory, and functional status had been evaluated during life. Seventy-eight percent were demented using conservative criteria; 55% had characteristic Alzheimer's disease. Choline acetyltransferase and somatostatin were(More)
Clinical and pathological evidence of subcortical central nervous system (CNS) damage is observed commonly in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis. Whether other CNS regions are also affected has not been well studied. We report neocortical damage in patients with HIV encephalitis. Using quantitative techniques, we demonstrate(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by an extensive loss of neurons and synapses in the neocortex which correlates strongly with psychometric tests of dementia. To characterize the ultrastructural changes in presynaptic terminals in AD, we studied biopsy material from the frontal cortex. We also examined, at the ultrastructural level, abnormal(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extensive synaptic and neuronal loss and by plaque formation in the cortex, but the mechanisms responsible for synaptic plasticity in the neocortex are still not completely understood. To analyze the sprouting response in AD cortex, we compared the patterns of GAP-43 with synaptophysin immunoreactivity. In AD,(More)
Reactive synaptogenesis and terminal proliferation are known to occur in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus following removal of specific afferents. In the present study we have examined the relation of synaptophysin immunoreactivity to the immunohistochemical staining pattern of GAP-43, a putative marker of neuritic growth. Within the molecular layer(More)