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Tissue formation, the identity of cells, and the functions they fulfill, are results of gene regulation. The male gametophyte of plants, pollen, is outstanding in this respect as several hundred genes expressed in pollen are not expressed in the sporophyte. How pollen-specific genes are down-regulated in the sporophyte has yet to be established. In this(More)
Whole-genome duplications in the ancestors of many diverse species provided the genetic material for evolutionary novelty. Several models explain the retention of paralogous genes. However, how these models are reflected in the evolution of coding and non-coding sequences of paralogous genes is unknown. Here, we analyzed the coding and non-coding sequences(More)
Insufficient intake of zinc and iron from a cereal-based diet is one of the causes of 'hidden hunger' (micronutrient deficiency), which affects some two billion people(1,2). Identifying a limiting factor in the molecular mechanism of zinc loading into seeds is an important step towards determining the genetic basis for variation of grain micronutrient(More)
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