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We give a classical confidence belt construction which unifies the treatment of upper confidence limits for null results and two-sided confidence intervals for non-null results. The unified treatment solves a problem (apparently not previously recognized) that the choice of upper limit or two-sided intervals leads to intervals which are not confidence… (More)

We give a classical confidence belt construction which unifies the treatment of upper confidence limits for null results and two-sided confidence intervals for non-null results. The unified treatment solves a problem (apparently not previously recognized) that the choice of upper limit or two-sided intervals leads to intervals which are not confidence… (More)

- Robert D. Cousins, Virgil L. Highland
- 1992

In this note we consider a problem that arises in rare decay experiments that observe no, or few, candidate events : How can one include the systematic uncertainty of the experimental sensitivity in the upper limit that is reported for the branching ratio? Similar problems arise in measuring limits on the production cross sections of rare particles and… (More)

Roe and Woodroofe (RW) have suggested that certain conditional probabilities be incorporated into the “unified approach” for constructing confidence intervals, previously described by Feldman and Cousins (FC). RW illustrated this conditioning technique using one of the two prototype problems in the FC paper, that of Poisson processes with background. The… (More)

Hypothesis tests for the presence of new sources of Poisson counts amidst background processes are frequently performed in high energy physics (HEP), gamma ray astronomy (GRA), and other branches of science. While there are conceptual issues already when the mean rate of background is precisely known, the issues are even more difficult when the mean… (More)

I discuss a number of issues which arise when computing confidence limits by frequentist or Bayesian methods. I begin with a reminder why P(hypothesis data) cannot be determined if the only input is the ‘objective’ data. I then discuss confidence intervals, with emphasis on the ‘unified approach’ based on likelihood-ratio ordering, and related methods. A… (More)

- Robert D. Cousins
- Synthese
- 2017

A question that comes up repeatedly is how to combine the results of two experiments if all that is known is that one experiment had a n-sigma effect and another experiment had a m-sigma effect. This question is not well-posed: depending on what additional assumptions are made, the preferred answer is different. The note lists some of the more prominent… (More)

Nuisance parameters are common in high energy physics (HEP), and various methods are used for incorporating their effects into measurements of physics interest. A survey of some of the professional statistics literature provides justification for and insight into most of the methods commonly used in HEP. There are extensions and refinements whose usefulness… (More)

- Darin Acosta, Nathaniel Adams, +8 authors Valeriy Sedov
- 2000

We report on the development and test of a fast 3-D Track-Finder for the Level1 trigger of the CMS endcap muon system. System tests included four types of custom circuit boards clocked at 40 MHz, optical links, and a high-speed custom auxiliary backplane in a VME crate. The hardware results, calculated using fieldprogrammable gate arrays, programmable logic… (More)