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An efficient ray tracing method is presented for calculating interreflections between surfaces with both diffuse and specular components. A Monte Carlo technique computes the indirect contributions to illuminance at locations chosen by the rendering process. The indirect illuminance values are averaged over surfaces and used in place of a constant "ambient"(More)
Time-averaged human electroretinogram (ERG) responses were determined for several workplace visual stimuli which are temporally modulated at rates exceeding the perceptual critical fusion frequency (CFF). A clearly identifiable synchronous response was in evidence for a video display terminal (VDT) stimulus operating with a refresh rate as high as 76 Hz. A(More)
Commission (hereafter the "Sponsors"). The opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect those of the Sponsors or the State of New York, and reference to any specific product, service, process, or method does not constitute an implied or expressed recommendation or endorsement of it. Further, the Sponsors and the State of New York make no(More)
Broad Context • Great diversity; creative architectural and engineering solutions • U.S. History – 37 years since the 1973 OAPEC crisis – Lots of forward progress but lots of steps backwards too: the political environment supporting energy-efficiency has wavered • Today: The Perfect Storm – Urgency: Climate change is happening (& finally acknowledged) –(More)
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ambient air quality guidelines are meant to limit long-term exposures of toxins to safe levels. Unfortunately, there is little guidance for what constitutes a safe level from a one-time (or very infrequent) short exposure(s). In the case of mercury, a review of the derivation of the EPA ambient air quality standard(More)
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