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3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a popular illicit drug that evokes transporter-mediated release of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) from nerve cells. Recently, drug users have ingested combinations of the piperazine analogs, 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP) and 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP), in an attempt to mimic the subjective(More)
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or 'Ecstasy') is an illicit drug that stimulates the release of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) from neurons. Recent evidence reveals that drug users are ingesting piperazine analogs, like 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP, or 'A2') and 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP, or 'Molly'), to mimic psychoactive effects(More)
Evidence suggests that elevations in extracellular serotonin (5-HT) in the brain can diminish stimulant effects of dopamine (DA). To assess this proposal, we evaluated the pharmacology of amphetamine analogs (m-fluoroamphetamine, p-fluoroamphetamine, m-methylamphetamine, p-methylamphetamine), which display similar in vitro potency as DA releasers (EC(50) =(More)
(+/-)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or Ecstasy) is an illicit drug that evokes transporter-mediated release of monoamines, including serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA). Here we monitored the effects of MDMA on neurochemistry and motor activity in rats, as a means to evaluate relationships between 5-HT, DA, and behavior. Male rats undergoing in(More)
When searching for new leads, testing molecules that are too "similar" is wasteful, but when investigating a lead, testing molecules that are "similar" to the lead is efficient. Two questions then arise. Which are the molecular descriptors that should be "similar"? How much "similarity" is enough? These questions are answered by demonstrating that, if a(More)
Several different functions have been put forward for evaluating the energetics of ligand binding to proteins. Those employed in the DOCK, GOLD and FlexX docking programs have been especially widely used, particularly in connection with virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS) projects. Until recently, such evaluation functions were usually considered only(More)
The two methods most often used to evaluate the robustness and predictivity of partial least squares (PLS) models are cross-validation and response randomization. Both methods may be overly optimistic for data sets that contain redundant observations, however. The kinds of perturbation analysis widely used for evaluating model stability in the context of(More)
Two modifications to the standard use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for evaluating virtual screening methods are proposed. The first is to replace the linear plots usually used with semi-logarithmic ones (pROC plots), including when doing "area under the curve" (AUC) calculations. Doing so is a simple way to bias the statistic to favor(More)