Robert Colby Layton

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BACKGROUND Primary pneumonic plague is rare among humans, but treatment efficacy may be tested in appropriate animal models under the FDA 'Animal Rule'. METHODS Ten African Green monkeys (AGMs) inhaled 44-255 LD(50) doses of aerosolized Yersinia pestis strain CO92. Continuous telemetry, arterial blood gases, chest radiography, blood culture, and clinical(More)
Person-to-person transmission of influenza viruses occurs by contact (direct and fomites) and non-contact (droplet and small particle aerosol) routes, but the quantitative dynamics and relative contributions of these routes are incompletely understood. The transmissibility of influenza strains estimated from secondary attack rates in closed human(More)
BACKGROUND The reduced immunogenicity of the H5 hemagglutinin (HA), compared to seasonal HA serotypes, has stimulated searches for effective adjuvants to improve H5 vaccine efficacy. This study examined the immunogenicity and protective efficacy in ferrets immunized with a split-virion H5N1 vaccine combined with Advax™, a novel delta inulin-based(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI), subtype H5N1, remains an emergent threat to the human population. While respiratory disease is a hallmark of influenza infection, H5N1 has a high incidence of neurological sequelae in many animal species and sporadically in humans. We elucidate the temporal/spatial infection of H5N1 in the brain of ferrets(More)
Influenza virus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet little quantitative understanding of transmission is available to guide evidence-based public health practice. Recent studies of influenza non-contact transmission between ferrets and guinea pigs have provided insights into the relative transmission efficiencies of pandemic and(More)
Orius insidiosus (Say) was observed to successfully prey on eggs and earlier instar larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW),Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Significantly more neonates of FAW were killed per 24 h than either 1, 2 or 3 d old larvae. Female and male predators exhibited a typical type-II functional response when preying on varying densities of(More)
BACKGROUND Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is considered a potential bioweapon due to rapid lethality when delivered as an aerosol. Levofloxacin was tested for primary pneumonic plague treatment in a nonhuman primate model mimicking human disease. METHODS AND RESULTS Twenty-four African Green monkeys (AGMs, Chlorocebus aethiops) were challenged via(More)
The pathogenicity and transmission of influenza A viruses are likely determined in part by replication efficiency in human cells, which is the net effect of complex virus-host interactions. H5N1 avian, H1N1 seasonal, and H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza virus strains were compared by infecting human differentiated bronchial epithelial cells in air-liquid(More)
Vaccines against primary pneumonic plague, a potential bioweapon, must be tested for efficacy in well-characterized nonhuman primate models. Telemetered cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were challenged by the aerosol route with doses equivalent to approximately 100 50% effective doses of Yersinia pestis strain CO92 and necropsied at 24-h intervals(More)