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In aging men, the prostate gland becomes hyperproliferative and displays a propensity toward carcinoma. Although this hyperproliferative process has been proposed to represent an inappropriate reactivation of an embryonic differentiation program, the regulatory genes responsible for normal prostate development and function are largely undefined. Here we(More)
NIH sponsored a meeting of medical and veterinary pathologists with mammary gland expertise in Annapolis in March 1999. Rapid development of mouse mammary models has accentuated the need for definitions of the mammary lesions in genetically engineered mice (GEM) and to assess their usefulness as models of human breast disease. The panel of nine pathologists(More)
One of the enigmas in tumor biology is that different types of cancers are prevalent in different age groups. One possible explanation is that the ability of a specific oncogene to cause tumorigenesis in a particular cell type depends on epigenetic parameters such as the developmental context. To address this hypothesis, we have used the tetracycline(More)
A key issue in cancer biology is whether oncogenic transformation of different cell types of origin within an adult tissue gives rise to distinct tumor subtypes that differ in their prognosis and/or treatment response. We now show that initiation of prostate tumors in basal or luminal epithelial cells in mouse models results in tumors with distinct(More)
Retinoids, which are important regulators of cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, have been used in treatment or chemoprevention of multiple cancers including prostate cancer. To elucidate the mechanism of action of retinoids in the context of the prostate, we used the Cre-loxP system to disrupt the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) gene(More)
Physical associations between cyclins, viral oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes imply a central role for cyclins in growth control. Cyclin D1 was identified as a candidate oncogene (PRAD1) in tumour-specific DNA rearrangements and is suspected to be a contributor to several types of neoplasms including breast cancer. Cyclin D1 also rescues G1(More)
Hepatocellular carcinoma is generally refractory to clinical treatment. Here, we report that inactivation of the MYC oncogene is sufficient to induce sustained regression of invasive liver cancers. MYC inactivation resulted en masse in tumour cells differentiating into hepatocytes and biliary cells forming bile duct structures, and this was associated with(More)
Our understanding of cancer has largely come from the analysis of aberrations within the tumor cell population. Yet it is increasingly clear that the tumor microenvironment can significantly influence tumorigenesis. For example, the mesenchyme can support the growth of tumorigenic epithelium. However, whether fibroblasts are subject to genetic/epigenetic(More)
Proteins with SH2 and SH3 domains link tyrosine kinases to intracellular pathways. To investigate the biological functions of a mammalian SH2/SH3 adaptor, we have introduced a null mutation into the mouse gene for Grb2. Analysis of mutant embryonic stem cells, embryos, and chimeras reveals that Grb2 is required during embyrogenesis for the differentiation(More)
Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that is upregulated in many human cancers and can serve as an oncogene in lymphocytes. Recently, we have demonstrated that CK2 potentiates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in mammary epithelial cells. To determine whether CK2 overexpression contributes to mammary(More)